To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Birth weight influences not only brain development, but also mental health outcomes, including depression, but the underlying mechanism is unclear.
The phenotypic data of 12,872–91,009 participants (59.18–63.38% women) from UK Biobank were included to test the associations between the birth weight, depression, and brain volumes through the linear and logistic regression models. As birth weight is highly heritable, the polygenic risk scores (PRSs) of birth weight were calculated from the UK Biobank cohort (154,539 participants, 56.90% women) to estimate the effect of birth weight-related genetic variation on the development of depression and brain volumes. Finally, the mediation analyses of step approach and mediation analysis were used to estimate the role of brain volumes in the association between birth weight and depression. All analyses were conducted sex stratified to assess sex-specific role in the associations.
We observed associations between birth weight and depression (odds ratio [OR] = 0.968, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.957–0.979, p = 2.29 × 10−6). Positive associations were observed between birth weight and brain volumes, such as gray matter (B = 0.131, p = 3.51 × 10−74) and white matter (B = 0.129, p = 1.67 × 10−74). Depression was also associated with brain volume, such as left thalamus (OR = 0.891, 95% CI = 0.850–0.933, p = 4.46 × 10−5) and right thalamus (OR = 0.884, 95% CI = 0.841–0.928, p = 2.67 × 10−5). Additionally, significant mediation effects of brain volume were found for the associations between birth weight and depression through steps approach and mediation analysis, such as gray matter (B = –0.220, p = 0.020) and right thalamus (B = –0.207, p = 0.014).
Our results showed the associations among birth weight, depression, and brain volumes, and the mediation effect of brain volumes also provide evidence for the sex-specific of associations.
Isolated congenital tricuspid regurgitation other than Ebstein’s anomaly was rare especially for children. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and to assess the results of tricuspid valvuloplasty for children with isolated tricuspid regurgitation.
From January 2010 to June 2019, 10 consecutive patients with isolated tricuspid regurgitation who were unresponsive to drug therapy underwent tricuspid valvuloplasty in our hospital. Patients’ clinical data were analysed retrospectively.
Mean age at operation was 48.5 ± 31.0 (range: 9–106) months and mean weight at operation was 16.1 ± 6.9 (range: 8.6–33.0) kg. All patients presented severe isolated tricuspid regurgitation. According to pathological lesions, the main causes accounted for chordae tendinea rupture (3/10), leaflet cleft (2/10), mal-connected chordal tendinea to leaflets (2/10), elongated chordae (1/10) and chordae absent (1/10), and severe anterior leaflet dysplasia (1/10). Individualised tricuspid valvuloplasty was adapted to all of them successfully. Post-operative echocardiography showed no tricuspid regurgitation in two patients and mild regurgitation in eight patients. The cardiothoracic ratios on their chest roentgenograms decreased from 0.59 ± 0.05 to 0.54 ± 0.05. At the latest follow-up (50.4 ± 47.2 months), echocardiography showed that mild to moderate tricuspid regurgitation in seven patients, moderate tricuspid regurgitation in three patients, and no patient with severe tricuspid regurgitation. All patients were in NYHA functional class I.
For patients with isolated tricuspid regurgitation who were not well responsive to drug therapy, individualised tricuspid valve repair can achieve an excellent result.
Bile acids (BA) have emerged as signalling molecules regulating intestinal physiology. The importance of intestinal microbiota in production of secondary BA, for example, lithocholic acid (LCA) which impairs enterocyte proliferation and permeability, triggered us to determine the effects of oral probiotics on intestinal BA metabolism. Piglets were weaned at 28 d of age and allocated into control (CON, n 14) or probiotic (PRO, n 14) group fed 50 mg of Lactobacillus plantarum daily, and gut microbiota and BA profile were determined. To test the potential interaction of LCA with bacteria endotoxins in inducing damage of enterocytes, IPEC-J2 cells were treated with LCA, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LCA + LPS and expressions of genes related to inflammation, antioxidant capacity and nutrient transport were determined. Compared with the CON group, the PRO group showed lower total LCA level in the ileum and higher relative abundance of the Lactobacillus genus in faeces. In contrast, the relative abundances of Bacteroides, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Parabacteroides and Ruminococcus_1, important bacteria genera in BA biotransformation, were all lower in the PRO than in the CON group. Moreover, PRO piglets had lower postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 level, while higher glucose level than CON piglets. Co-administration of LPS and LCA led to down-regulated expression of glucose and peptide transporter genes in IPEC-J2 cells. Altogether, oral L. plantarum altered BA profile probably by modulating relative abundances of gut microbial genera that play key roles in BA metabolism and might consequently impact glucose homoeostasis. The detrimental effect of LCA on nutrient transport in enterocytes might be aggravated under LPS challenge.
Previous studies have analyzed brain functional connectivity to reveal the neural physiopathology of bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) based on the triple-network model [involving the salience network, default mode network (DMN), and central executive network (CEN)]. However, most studies assumed that the brain intrinsic fluctuations throughout the entire scan are static. Thus, we aimed to reveal the dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) in the triple networks of BD and MDD.
We collected resting state fMRI data from 51 unmedicated depressed BD II patients, 51 unmedicated depressed MDD patients, and 52 healthy controls. We analyzed the dFNC by using an independent component analysis, sliding window correlation and k-means clustering, and used the parameters of dFNC state properties and dFNC variability for group comparisons.
The dFNC within the triple networks could be clustered into four configuration states, three of them showing dense connections (States 1, 2, and 4) and the other one showing sparse connections (State 3). Both BD and MDD patients spent more time in State 3 and showed decreased dFNC variability between posterior DMN and right CEN (rCEN) compared with controls. The MDD patients showed specific decreased dFNC variability between anterior DMN and rCEN compared with controls.
This study revealed more common but less specific dFNC alterations within the triple networks in unmedicated depressed BD II and MDD patients, which indicated their decreased information processing and communication ability and may help us to understand their abnormal affective and cognitive functions clinically.
This paper discusses a pulse electroplating method for preparing copper (Cu)-coated gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) for the electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to hydrocarbons such as ethylene. Ionomer coating and air-plasma surface pre-treatments were explored as means of hydrophilizing the carbon surface to enable adhesion of electrodeposited material. The pulsed-current electrodeposition method used successfully generated copper and copper oxide micro- and nano-particles on the prepared surfaces. Copper(I) species identified on the ionomer-treated GDEs are presumed to be highly active for the selective generation of ethylene as compared to other gaseous byproducts of CO2 reduction. Conversely, copper catalysts deposited onto plasma-treated GDEs were found to have poor activity for hydrocarbon production, likely due to substantial metallic character. Of note, plasma treatment of an ionomer-treated GDE after copper plating yielded further improvements in catalytic activity and durability towards ethylene production.
We solve the problem of concept learning using a semi-tensor product method. All possible hypotheses are expressed under the framework of a semi-tensor product. An algorithm is raised to derive the version space. In some cases, the new approach improves the efficiency compared to the previous approach.
The effect of erosion speed on the interaction between erosion and corrosion of the Fe–3.5 wt% B alloy in a flowing zinc bath has been investigated using a rotating-disk technique. The total erosion–corrosion rate increases rapidly, whereas the pure erosion rate tends to increase linearly with an increase in erosion speed and with low damage. The increase in total erosion–corrosion rate is strongly dependent on erosion–corrosion interaction. During the erosion–corrosion process, the severe corrosion reaction roughens the surface by forming a loose corrosion layer and cracks in the anticaustic Fe2B skeleton, which eventually facilitates erosion. The micromechanical scouring effect of liquid zinc worsens corrosion by accelerating the removal of corrosion products and causing spallation of anticaustic Fe2B. An increase in erosion speed intensifies the micromechanical scouring effect of flowing zinc significantly. A strong erosion–corrosion interaction occurs at high erosion speed, which leads to a greater material loss rate.
Fossilized animal embryos from lower Cambrian rocks provide a rare opportunity to study the ontogeny and developmental biology of early animals during the Cambrian explosion. This paper reports possible animal embryos, along with sponge spicules, hyolithelminths, and linguliformean brachiopods, from the upper Shuijingtuo Formation limestone (Cambrian Stage 3) at Changyang, Hubei Province, South China. This limestone unit has carbonate carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions similar to the upper Shuijingtuo limestone in the Yangtze Gorges area. The Shuijingtuo embryo fossils were exposed by physical fracturing, extracted with acetic acid maceration, and observed in thin sections. They were examined using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic elemental mapping, and micro-focus X-ray computed tomography. Most of them are poorly preserved, with a phosphatic envelope (interpreted as a chorion or fertilization envelope) surrounding sparitic calcite. In some specimens, a polygonal pattern is present on the surface, and these are interpreted as multicelled blastula embryos. In others, sets of grooves are present on the surface of a calcitic spheroidal structure, presumably representing the calcitic interior within the chorion; these grooves are superficially similar to annulations of Markuelia embryos, but their biological significance is unknown. Although their phylogenetic and taxonomic placement is largely unconstrained, the Shuijingtuo animal embryos indicate that chorions are taphonomically more robust and are selectively phosphatized. Embryos within the chorions, on the other hand, can be completely lost or entirely replaced by calcite, with only poorly preserved surficial structures. This style of preservation can be explained by a taphonomic switch from early phosphatization to later calcitization. This study illustrates the importance of combining physical fracturing with widely used acid digestion methods in the study of calcitized animal embryos, and it alludes to the possibility that many empty phosphatic vesicles recovered by acid digestion from Cambrian carbonates may be fossilized chorions.
To date, there has been little improvement in cryopreservation of bull sperm due to lack of understanding of the freezing mechanisms. Therefore, this study set out to investigate expression levels of fertility-associated proteins in bull sperm, and in particular the relationship between the 90 kDa heat-shock protein (HSP90) and the sperm characteristics after freezing–thawing. Semen was collected from eight Holstein bulls by artificial vagina. Characteristics of these fresh semen, including sperm motility, morphology, viability and concentration, were evaluated. Sperm quality was also assessed after freezing–thawing. Eight ejaculates were divided into two groups based on freezing resistance and sperm motility. Sperm proteins were extracted and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis and western blotting were performed. SDS-PAGE results showed that there was substantial diversity in 90 kDa proteins in the frozen–thawed sperm and HSP90 was confirmed as one of the 90 kDa proteins by western blot. This study indicated that HSP90 expression correlated positively with sperm quality. The amount of expressed 90 kDa proteins in the high freezing resistance (HFR) group was significantly higher than that in the low freezing resistance (LFR) group (P < 0.05). Thus, higher expression of HSP90 could probably lead to the higher motility and freezing resistance of sperm found after freezing–thawing. Therefore, we concluded that level of HSP90 expression could be used to predict reliably and simply the freezing resistance of bull sperm.
Invasive species and acid rain cause global environmental problems. Creeping daisy, an invasive exotic allelopathic weed, has caused great damage in southern China, where acid rain is prevalent. The impact of the acidity of simulated acid rain (SAR) on soil nutrients, the decomposition of creeping daisy litter, and on the allelopathic potential of the surrounding soils was investigated. Litter was treated with SAR at different acidity (pH 2.5, 4.0, 5.6) or with water (pH 7.0) as a control. After 70 d, the remaining amount of creeping daisy litter, nutrient contents, and allelopathic potentials in the surrounding soil were determined. The litter decomposition was commensurate to the increase in the acidity of the SAR. Total C and N contents, NO3−-N and available P increased, levels of NH4+-N, the ratio of C/N and soil pH values decreased, water contents increased and then decreased, whereas available K did not significantly change in the soil surrounding the litters in response to the increase in the acidity of the SAR. Bioassays showed that SAR promoted the allelopathic activity in the soil surrounding the litter, as measured by seedling growth of turnip and radish. In conclusion, our results indicated that SAR influenced soil nutrient status, accelerated creeping daisy litter decomposition, and enhanced the allelopathic potential of its litter in the surrounding soil, suggesting that acid rain may enhance the invasiveness of creeping daisy plants.
It was primarily through Buddhism that the Indian culture took its stronghold in China. This is the reason why in the history of Sino-Indian cultural relations, Hinduism occupies a negligible position. Most of the Indian scholars who went to China between the second century and the eleventh century of the Christian era were Buddhists. There is indeed mention of very few Hindu scholars who, in spite of being Hindus, worked extensively for the Chinese renderings of Sanskrit Buddhist scriptures as interpreters.
Nevertheless along with the dissemination of Buddhism among the Chinese people, an impact of Indian knowledge of science, astrology and medicine on them can be traced clearly. People were drawn to the study of Indian medicine enshrined in the Atharvaveda and Indian astrology. A few translations of the treatise on Indian medicine by the Chinese support this conjecture. Apart from these translations, it is interesting to note that there are references to Indian medicinal herbs in Chinese pharmacological books. There was a strong belief among the Chinese emperors that the Indian doctors knew about certain medicines which could enhance longevity of their apparently short mortal life. It was quite often that the Chinese emperors, with the hope to live longer, used to send their officials to India in search of Indian doctors.
Chavannes was the first to publish an authoritative reading of the five Chinese inscriptions found at Bodhgayā with translation and notes (Les Inscriptions Chinoises de Bodhgayā, Revue de l'Histoire des Religions, T. XXXIV, Paris, 1896). His readings were based on estampages and photographs sent by Prof. A. Foucher who was then in India on a scientific mission. A faulty reading and a summary of two of these inscriptions had been previously published by Beal (J.R.A.S. 1881, vol. XIII, pp. 552–572, Indian Antiquary X, p. 193). The same note was reproduced without any revision in Cunningham's Mahahodhi. The original of the first four of the five inscriptions studied by Chavannes are now in the Indian Museum at Calcutta.
A re-examination of the original of Inscription no. 1 has now made it possible to suggest some improvements on its reading as given by Chavannes. The stone not being in a good condition the estampages was not evidently clear enough and Chavannes was obliged to leave a few lacunae in his reading of the inscription. These lacunae have now been filled up by an examination of the original inscription. The correct reading and a revised translation are given below.
The monk Che-yi of the great Han country had first taken the vow to exhort three hundred thousand men to practise the conduct which assures a higher birth, to make a charity of three hundred thousand copies (lit. fasciculi) of the Shang sheng king (Sūtra on the higher birth), and himself to recite (it) three hundred thousand times (lit. fasciculi).
The Chinese mind, generally speaking, has no mystic bent. The Confucian positivism is its best expression and the greater bulk of the people have been ardent followers of the Confucian ethics. The abolition of imperialism, round which this Confucianism centered in ancient times, has made no difference in the country and the Confucian attitude of mind has not been disturbed in the least. The Confucian ethics is mainly based on conservative social dogmas. There is no place of divine revelation in it, and it insists on the reciprocal duties of the Emperor and his subjects, father and children, and the fellowcitizens. The respect of the subjects for the Emperor, and the respect of the children for their ancestors, constitute the real foundation of the Government and family. This is why it has been given the place of a national religion in Confucian ethics. In Confucian philosophy there is no place for a Creator God, and in fact Confucius himself refused more than once to be dragged into the speculation on the existence of a Godhead. He explains the mystery of the Universe by the formulation of two principles which he calls Yin and Yang. Yin is the female principle which is passive and Yang is the male principle which is active. These two in conjunction create the beings which populate the earth.
Such a simple positivist creed could not have given rise to mysticism, but still China witnessed very early the birth and growth of a very intricate mysticism.
Although during the first few centuries of Buddhist missionary activities in China the lead was generally given by the Buddhist scholars of Iran and of countries in Central Asia, Indian Buddhist scholars did not fail to make their presence felt in the various centres of Buddhism in China and create amongst the Chinese an interest in Buddhism and Indian culture in general which would not have been otherwise possible. The first two Indian scholars who came to China in 68 A.D. during the reign of Ming ti, Kāśyapa Mātanga and Dharmarakṣa, translated five Buddhist texts into Chinese. These were resumés of the legends of the birth and childhood of Buddha, a resumé of his predication, a short treatise on the main principles of Buddhism, a sūtra on the purity of monastic life and a sūtra on the principles of ascetic life for those who wanted to follow the way of spiritual perfection. Four of these works were judicious selection. The “Sūtra of 42 sections” which has been preserved up till now is clearly a catechism for the use of missionaries intending to preach the Buddhist religion in foreign countries. The original text did not belong to the Buddhist Canon. It had been compiled in order to give a general idea of the religion and its practices. The first Buddhist monastery in China Po ma sse, the “White Horse Monastery” was built at Lo-yang for these two Indian missionaries.