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The current development in the field of artificial intelligence and its applications has advantages and disadvantages in the digital age that we now live in. The state of the use of AI for mental health has to be assessed by stakeholders, which includes all of us. We must comprehend the trends, gaps, opportunities, challenges, and shortcomings of this new technology. As the field evolves, rules, regulatory frameworks, guidelines, standards, and policies will develop and will progressively scale upwards. To advance the field, mental health professionals must be prepared to meet obstacles and seize possibilities presented by creative and disruptive technologies like AI. Therefore, a collaborative strategy must include multi-stakeholder participation in basic, translational, and clinical aspects of AI. Mental health practitioners need to be ready to face challenges and embrace and harness the power of innovative and disruptive technology such as AI that could offer to move the field forward.
Melatonin is a ubiquitous molecule and widely distributed in nature,
with functional activity occurring in unicellular organisms, plants,
fungi, and animals. Several studies have indicated that melatonin
synthesis occurs in the retina of most vertebrates, including mammals. The
retinal biosynthesis of melatonin and the mechanisms involved in the
regulation of this process have been extensively studied. Circadian clocks
located in the photoreceptors and retinal neurons regulate melatonin
synthesis in the eye. Photoreceptors, dopaminergic amacrine neurons, and
horizontal cells of the retina, corneal epithelium, stroma endothelium,
and the sclera all have melatonin receptors, indicating a widespread
ocular function for melatonin. In addition, melatonin is an effective
antioxidant which scavenges free radicals and up-regulates several
antioxidant enzymes. It also has a strong antiapoptotic signaling
function, an effect that it exerts even during ischemia. Melatonin
cytoprotective properties may have practical implications in the treatment
of ocular diseases, like glaucoma and age-related macular
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