The effect of CSN1S1 genotype and lactation stage on milk yield and composition were investigated in 80 extensively reared goats. Milk yield was recorded in early, mid and late lactation and individual milk samples were collected to determine: fat, protein, lactose and casein content, pH, freezing point, somatic cell count (SCC) and total microbic mesophilic count (TMC). Relative casein composition and amino acid profile were quantified by HPLC. Fatty acid profile was measured by gas-chromatography. Genotype did not affect milk yield, while this trait was significantly affected by lactation stage (P < 0·01). CSN1S1 BB goats produced significantly higher protein and casein percentages (P < 0·05). αs1-casein (CN) was significantly higher in BB and AB goats than AF and BF, showing intermediate values in AA goats (P < 0·01). The protein percentage and the αs1 and αs2-CN fractions were not affected by lactation stage, while the casein content and the β and κ-CN significantly increased throughout lactation (P < 0·01). C4 : 0 and C6 : 0 were not affected by genotype, while C8 : 0 and C10 : 0 were higher in the AA goats than BB; most of the long chain FA were higher in BB than AA goats. MUFA and PUFA increased in late lactation. In addition, BB goats showed higher essential amino acids, resulting in an optimal composition from the nutritional point of view, when compared with AA goats. The increase of MUFA, PUFA, essential and cis-FA in late lactation indicate that the lipid composition of goat's milk, with the progress of lactation, tends to improve its nutritional value.