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Research on the cities of the Classical Greek world has traditionally focused on mapping the organisation of urban space and studying major civic or religious buildings. More recently, newer techniques such as field survey and geophysical survey have facilitated exploration of the extent and character of larger areas within urban settlements, raising questions about economic processes. At the same time, detailed analysis of residential buildings has also supported a change of emphasis towards understanding some of the functional and social aspects of the built environment as well as purely formal ones. This article argues for the advantages of analysing Greek cities using a multidisciplinary, multi-scalar framework which encompasses all of these various approaches and adds to them other analytical techniques (particularly micro-archaeology). We suggest that this strategy can lead towards a more holistic view of a city, not only as a physical place, but also as a dynamic community, revealing its origins, development and patterns of social and economic activity. Our argument is made with reference to the research design, methodology and results of the first three seasons of fieldwork at the city of Olynthos, carried out by the Olynthos Project.
The Nakhla meteorite represents basaltic rock from the martian upper crust, with reduced carbon indicative of the ingress of carbonaceous fluids. Study of a terrestrial analogue basalt with reduced carbon from the Ordovician of Northern Ireland shows that remote analysis could detect the carbon using Raman spectroscopy. Analysis of gases released by crushing detects methane-rich fluids in the basalt and especially in cross-cutting carbon-bearing veinlets. The results suggest that automated analysis on Mars could detect the reduced carbon, which may be derived from magmatic and/or meteoritic infall sources.
The experimental and epidemiological evidence demonstrating that Ca inhibits Fe absorption was reviewed, with the objectives of estimating the potential impact of variations in Ca intake on dietary Fe bioavailability and of providing some guidelines for predicting the effects on Fe status of recent recommendations for higher dietary Ca intake. In animal models Ca salts reduced both haem- and non-haem-Fe absorption, the effect being dependent on the amount of Ca administered rather than the Ca:Fe molar ratio; dairy products had a variable effect; factors other than Ca may have been important. In single-meal human absorption studies, both haem- and non-haem-Fe absorption was inhibited by Ca supplements and by dairy products, the effect depending on the simultaneous presence of Ca and Fe in the lumen of the upper small intestine and also occurring when Ca and Fe were given in the fasting state. The quantitative effect, although dose dependent, was modified by the form in which Ca was administered and by other dietary constituents (such as phosphate, phytate and ascorbic acid) known to affect Fe bioavailability. The mechanism by which Ca influences Fe absorption has not been elucidated. The effects of factors that modulate Fe bioavailability are known to be exaggerated in single-meal studies, and measurements based on several meals are more likely to reflect the true nutritional impact. The results of most multiple-meal human studies suggest that Ca supplementation will have only a small effect on Fe absorption unless habitual Ca consumption is very low. Outcome analyses showed that Ca supplements had no effect on Fe status in infants fed Fe-fortified formula, lactating women, adolescent girls and adult men and women. However it should be noted that the subjects studied had adequate intakes of bioavailable Fe and, except in one study, had relatively high habitual Ca intakes. Although cross-sectional analyses in Europe have shown a significant inverse correlation between Ca intake (derived primarily from dairy foods) and Fe stores, the quantitative effect was relatively small. The general conclusion is that dietary Ca supplements are unlikely to have a biologically significant impact on Fe balance in Western societies unless Ca consumption is habitually very low; however, increased consumption of dairy products may have a small negative effect that could be functionally important in pregnancy if Fe supplements are not taken. It is uncertain whether the inverse relationship between consumption of dairy products and Fe status is due entirely to increased Ca intake; substitution of milk proteins for meat may also have negative effects on Fe balance.
Research studies clearly indicate that age-related changes in cellular and tissue function are linked to
decreases in the anabolic hormones, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1. Although there
has been extensive research on the effects of these hormones on bone and muscle mass, their effect on
cerebrovascular and brain ageing has received little attention. We have also observed that in response to
moderate calorie restriction (a treatment that increases mean and maximal lifespan by 30–40%), age-related
decreases in growth hormone secretion are ameliorated (despite a decline in plasma levels of IGF-1)
suggesting that some of the effects of calorie restriction are mediated by modifying the regulation of the
growth hormone/IGF-1 axis. Recently, we have observed that microvascular density on the surface of the
brain decreases with age and that these vascular changes are ameliorated by moderate calorie restriction.
Analysis of cerebral blood flow paralleled the changes in vasculature in both groups. Administration of
growth hormone for 28 d was also found to increase microvascular density in aged animals and further
analysis indicated that the cerebral vasculature is an important paracrine source of IGF-1 for the brain. In
subsequent studies, administration of GHRH (to increase endogenous release of growth hormone) or direct
administration of IGF-1 was shown to reverse the age-related decline in spatial working and reference
memory. Similarly, antagonism of IGF-1 action in the brains of young animals impaired both learning and
reference memory. Investigation of the mechanisms of action of IGF-1 suggested that this hormone regulates
age-related alterations in NMDA receptor subtypes (e.g. NMDAR2A and R2B). The beneficial role of
growth hormone and IGF-1 in ameliorating vascular and brain ageing are counterbalanced by their well-recognised
roles in age-related pathogenesis. Although research in this area is still evolving, our results
suggest that decreases in growth hormone and IGF-1 with age have both beneficial and deleterious effects.
Furthermore, part of the actions of moderate calorie restriction on tissue function and lifespan may be
mediated through alterations in the growth hormone/IGF-1 axis.
Numerous studies of their population genetics have reported incipient reproductive isolation among sympatric populations of the common intertidal beadlet anemone Actinia equina. This has lead to certain morphs being raised to specific status. A study of the nematocysts of the green sea anemone Actinia prasina and three genetically isolated morphs of A. equina was undertaken to establish that mean nematocyst length could act as diagnostic phenotypic characters within a morphologically variable group. The results support genetic and ecological evidence for the specific status of the three red/brown coloured morphs of A. equina. The data are discussed with respect to the ecology of Actinia and concepts of species, but more work is required before the specific status of A. prasina can be confirmed.
“Chronic fatigue syndrome” (Sharpe et al, 1991) is an operational definition for conditions of disabling physical fatigue, of over six months duration, unexplained by primary physical or psychiatric causes. It encompasses nomenclature such as “myalgic encephalomyelitis” (Acheson, 1959), “post-viral fatigue syndrome” (Behan et al, 1985) and “chronic mononucleosis syndrome” (Straus, 1988).
All referrals made to the liaison psychiatric service for HIV and AIDS patients over one year were reviewed. ICD–9 and CDC diagnoses were applied to each case at presentation. Sixty HIV-positive patients were assessed, of whom 35 had affective disorder, which was significantly associated with CDC group IV disease (AIDS). Adjustment reaction was seen in nine patients, paranoid states in six, dementia in four, personality changes in four and paranoid schizophrenia in two. CT scans of the brain were performed on 23 of the patients: 17 of these showed abnormalities. The proportion of registered AIDS patients who were referred was five times the proportion of HIV patients.
Rigorous studies of community alternatives to hospitalisation show that they are feasible and effective but have spawned considerable debate about their methodology, replicability, and appropriateness for normal clinical practice. In Britain, many demonstration projects have been centrally funded and evaluated initially by the Personal Social Services Research Unit at the University of Kent and latterly by Good Practices in Mental Health (Renshaw et al, 1988). Such community-based projects have attempted to avoid the problems of community mental health centres in the United States which have, with some important exceptions, failed to offer a comprehensive service that would allow closure or a significant drop in bed numbers at state hospitals (Dowell & Ciarlo, 1983). In practice, the design of community services is very dependent on local circumstances, including the demography of the population, existing service provision and attitudes. For this reason, planners and practitioners need to be aware of many practical options for service delivery.
This year sees the tenth anniversary of the Collegiate Trainees' Committee (CTC). One of the functions undertaken by the CTC representatives is to organise an annual trainees' day in their division. This gives the trainees an opportunity to meet each other, lobby their divisional representatives and raise awareness of College activities. Another important aspect of the day is the talks, usually of a practical nature and concerning topics like the MRCPsych examinations and administration. There have been a number of single trainees' days reported (Lovett, 1987; Rice & Medley, 1987; Jones et al, 1989) but this is the first review of a larger sample.