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The primary objective was to identify risk factors independently associated with acute in-hospital delirium within 72 hours of emergency department (ED) arrival for patients diagnosed with a hip fracture.
This was a retrospective chart review of patients ages 65 years and older presenting to one of two academic EDs with a discharge diagnosis of a hip fracture from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2015. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine variables independently associated with the development of acute in-hospital delirium within 72 hours of ED arrival.
Of the 668 included patients, 181 (27.1%) developed delirium within 72 hours of ED arrival. History of neurodegenerative disease or dementia (odds ratio [OR]: 5.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.9, 8.4), age > 75 (OR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.4, 5.6), and absence of analgesia (no opioid or nerve block) in the ED (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3, 3.2) were independently associated with the development of acute in-hospital delirium; 525 (78.6%) patients received opioid analgesia in the ED. The most common analgesics used in the ED were intravenous (IV) morphine (35.8%), IV hydromorphone (35.2%), or dual therapy with both IV hydromorphone and IV morphine (2.2%). Femoral nerve blocks were initiated for 36 (5.4%) patients and successfully completed in 35 (5.2%) patients in the ED.
Advanced age and signs of dementia or neurodegenerative disease are predictors of 72-hour delirium that can be screened for during triage. Improved pain control in the ED may reduce the risk of acute in-hospital delirium.
To determine the number of urine cultures ordered for women who presented to the emergency department (ED) with symptoms of uncomplicated UTI, and whether a culture result impacted subsequent management.
This was a retrospective chart review of non-pregnant women aged 18-39 presenting to one of two academic EDs with a discharge diagnosis of uncomplicated UTI over a one-year study period. Patients were excluded if there was documentation of fever, immunocompromised state, diabetes mellitus, absence of lower urinary tract symptoms, ED administration of intravenous antibiotics, a previous UTI treated with antibiotics in the last 90 days, two weeks post-partum or post-instrumentation.
Of the 512 charts included in the analysis, 494 (96.5%) patients had a urinalysis, of which 463 (93.7%) had positive leukocyte esterase and 90 (18.2%) had positive nitrites. 370 patients (72.3%) had urine cultures performed, of which 236 (63.8%) were positive. 505 (98.6%) patients received antibiotics (53.9% Macrobid; 22.6% Ciprofloxacin; 15.0% Septra; 6.7% other; 1.8% not documented). 7 (1.9%) cultures grew organisms resistant to the prescribed antibiotic; 2 (0.5%) patients received new prescriptions.
For the majority of young female patients with an uncomplicated UTI, urine cultures did not change management in the ED setting. However, when the diagnosis is uncertain based on symptomology and urinalyses alone, a urine culture may be warranted. Greater efforts should be directed towards educating emergency physicians on accurately diagnosing uncomplicated cystitis and the limited impact of urine cultures on treatment once a diagnosis has been made.