To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The authors report on 7Li, 19F, and 1H pulsed field gradient NMR measurements of 26 organosilyl nitrile solvent-based electrolytes of either lithium bis(trifluorosulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) or lithium hexafluorophosphate. Lithium transport numbers (as high as 0.50) were measured and are highest in the LiTFSI electrolytes. The authors also report on solvent blend electrolytes of fluoroorganosilyl (FOS) nitrile solvent mixed with ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethyl carbonate. Solvent diffusion measurements on an electrolyte with 6% FOS suggest both the FOS and EC solvate the lithium cation. By comparing lithium transport and transference numbers, the authors find less ion pairing in FOS nitrile carbonate blend electrolytes and difluoroorganosilyl nitrile electrolytes.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is a neuroprotective therapy regularly used in newborn infants following traumatic births. The infant’s temperature is maintained at 33.5°C for 72 hours by a cooling blanket upon which the infant is placed. Parents are not permitted to hold their infant while TH is ongoing due to concerns for unintentional rewarming or accidental dislodging of catheters or other monitoring equipment. Our prior qualitative research with nurse and parent interviews described the inability to hold an infant during TH as a significant source of stress. We assessed the feasibility of a 30-minute period of maternal holding for infants being actively treated with TH and assessed both the maternal experience of holding and the nurse experience of supporting holding. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This was a feasibility study employing a mixed-methods approach. Inclusion criteria were gestational age at birth of 35 weeks or greater, absence of clinical or electrographic seizures during the first 24 hours of TH, and designation as “clinically stable” by the attending neonatologist with the infant on room air, nasal cannula, or continuous positive airway pressure. Quantitative data were obtained from vital sign monitoring every 2 minutes before, during and after holding and from maternal and nurse research surveys. Qualitative data were obtained from nurse surveys. Infant rewarming was prevented through use of a thin foam insulating barrier placed between mother and infant during holding. Adverse events were defined as a change in infant temperature greater than 0.5°C above or below 33.5°C, accidental dislodging of central lines/disruption of EEG leads or early termination of holding due vital sign instability present for greater than 2 recorded measurements including infant bradycardia defined as heart rate less than 80 beats per minute, hypotension defined as mean arterial pressure less than 40 mmHg or oxygen saturation of less than 93%. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: There were 10 newborn infants undergoing TH for neonatal encephalopathy (median gestational age 39.4 weeks) and their mothers (median age=31 years) were recruited. Infants remained on the hypothermia blanket during holding and were transferred safely to their mother’s arms without medical equipment malfunction/dislodgement. Holding occurred at a median of 47 hours of life. The mean temperature prior to holding was 33.4°C and at completion of holding the mean temperature was 33.5°C (p=0.18). There were no significant bradycardia, hypotension or oxygen desaturation events. In total, 80% of mothers reported difficulty bonding with their baby prior to holding and 90% reported a high level of stress before holding. After holding, all mothers felt their bond was “stronger” or “much stronger” and all felt “less stressed” or “much less stressed.” After holding, 75% of nurses reported that they felt a more positive emotional response to the infant. One nurse stated, “being a part of this emotional experience made me feel closer and more connected to this family and gave me a different perspective on just what they had been dealing with and feeling since giving birth to their child.” In free text responses, on 5 separate occasions, nurses commented on the relaxed, calmed or less irritable appearance of the infant while being held during TH. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In this sample of term infants treated with TH, a 30-minute period of maternal holding was not associated with increased temperature or other adverse events. Holding during TH was associated with extremely positive feedback from mothers and nurses. Future larger studies could consider assessing the impact of holding on endocrinological markers of stress and bonding, on infant glycemic control, on breastfeeding success rates, and the impact of earlier and improved bonding on the developmental outcomes of children held during their treatment with TH. Increasing the duration of holding and allowing both parents to hold on more than one occasion during the 72 hours of TH may increase the proposed benefits of this intervention.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The goal of the present study was to advance our understanding of how alcohol use may contribute to physical inactivity among university students by investigating this association at a day-to-day level. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In total, 57 university students (Mage=20.27; 54% male) completed daily diary questionnaires using a cellphone application, which prompted them each evening to report minutes of moderate/vigorous physical activity engaged in, and number of alcoholic drinks consumed, as well as intended minutes of physical activity for the following day. Longitudinal mixed-level modeling was used to disentangle within person and between-person effects of alcohol use on physical activity behavior and intentions. Separate models were run to investigate lagged effects of previous day alcohol use. We controlled for sex and age in all models. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Results indicated that participants’ usual alcohol use (between-person) was not associated with physical activity behavior or intentions. At the within-person level, day-to-day variance in alcohol use was negatively associated with both physical activity behavior (γ=−0.34, p=0.003) and intentions to engage in physical activity the following day (γ=−0.70, p<0.001). The lagged model indicated that previous day alcohol use negatively predicted PA behavior (γ=−0.33, p=0.004). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Previous studies have largely been constrained to cross-sectional designs, and have surmised that there exists a positive association between alcohol use and physical activity due to trait-level differences between university students. We advance this literature by using ecological momentary assessment to investigate the within-person effects of alcohol use on physical activity at a day-to-day level while controlling for between-person variance. Contrary to existing literature, we found that on days when students consumed relatively more alcohol than they typically report, they: (a) report fewer minutes of physical activity on the same day, (b) plan to engage in relatively less physical activity on the subsequent day, and (c) engage in less physical activity on the subsequent day. By advancing our understanding of how alcohol use may curtail other health behaviors such as physical activity, we inform interventions that aim to target these behaviors in conjunction, or as part of a multiple behavior change intervention.
Posthodiplostomum minimum utilizes a three-host life cycle with multiple developmental stages. The metacercarial stage, commonly known as ‘white grub’, infects the visceral organs of many freshwater fishes and was historically considered a host generalist due to its limited morphological variation among a wide range of hosts. In this study, infection data and molecular techniques were used to evaluate the host and tissue specificity of Posthodiplostomum metacercariae in centrarchid fishes. Eleven centrarchid species from three genera were collected from the Illinois portion of the Ohio River drainage and necropsied. Posthodiplostomum infection levels differed significantly by host age, host genera and infection locality. Three Posthodiplostomum spp. were identified by DNA sequencing, two of which were relatively common within centrarchid hosts. Both common species were host specialists at the genus level, with one species restricted to Micropterus hosts and the other preferentially infecting Lepomis. Host specificity is likely dictated by physiological compatibility and deviations from Lepomis host specificity may be related to host hybridization. Posthodiplostomum species also differed in their utilization of host tissues. Neither common species displayed strong genetic structure over the scale of this study, likely due to their utilization of bird definitive hosts.
A substantial proportion of persons with mental disorders seek treatment from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professionals. However, data on how CAM contacts vary across countries, mental disorders and their severity, and health care settings is largely lacking. The aim was therefore to investigate the prevalence of contacts with CAM providers in a large cross-national sample of persons with 12-month mental disorders.
In the World Mental Health Surveys, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to determine the presence of past 12 month mental disorders in 138 801 participants aged 18–100 derived from representative general population samples. Participants were recruited between 2001 and 2012. Rates of self-reported CAM contacts for each of the 28 surveys across 25 countries and 12 mental disorder groups were calculated for all persons with past 12-month mental disorders. Mental disorders were grouped into mood disorders, anxiety disorders or behavioural disorders, and further divided by severity levels. Satisfaction with conventional care was also compared with CAM contact satisfaction.
An estimated 3.6% (standard error 0.2%) of persons with a past 12-month mental disorder reported a CAM contact, which was two times higher in high-income countries (4.6%; standard error 0.3%) than in low- and middle-income countries (2.3%; standard error 0.2%). CAM contacts were largely comparable for different disorder types, but particularly high in persons receiving conventional care (8.6–17.8%). CAM contacts increased with increasing mental disorder severity. Among persons receiving specialist mental health care, CAM contacts were reported by 14.0% for severe mood disorders, 16.2% for severe anxiety disorders and 22.5% for severe behavioural disorders. Satisfaction with care was comparable with respect to CAM contacts (78.3%) and conventional care (75.6%) in persons that received both.
CAM contacts are common in persons with severe mental disorders, in high-income countries, and in persons receiving conventional care. Our findings support the notion of CAM as largely complementary but are in contrast to suggestions that this concerns person with only mild, transient complaints. There was no indication that persons were less satisfied by CAM visits than by receiving conventional care. We encourage health care professionals in conventional settings to openly discuss the care patients are receiving, whether conventional or not, and their reasons for doing so.
The treatment gap between the number of people with mental disorders and the number treated represents a major public health challenge. We examine this gap by socio-economic status (SES; indicated by family income and respondent education) and service sector in a cross-national analysis of community epidemiological survey data.
Data come from 16 753 respondents with 12-month DSM-IV disorders from community surveys in 25 countries in the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative. DSM-IV anxiety, mood, or substance disorders and treatment of these disorders were assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).
Only 13.7% of 12-month DSM-IV/CIDI cases in lower-middle-income countries, 22.0% in upper-middle-income countries, and 36.8% in high-income countries received treatment. Highest-SES respondents were somewhat more likely to receive treatment, but this was true mostly for specialty mental health treatment, where the association was positive with education (highest treatment among respondents with the highest education and a weak association of education with treatment among other respondents) but non-monotonic with income (somewhat lower treatment rates among middle-income respondents and equivalent among those with high and low incomes).
The modest, but nonetheless stronger, an association of education than income with treatment raises questions about a financial barriers interpretation of the inverse association of SES with treatment, although future within-country analyses that consider contextual factors might document other important specifications. While beyond the scope of this report, such an expanded analysis could have important implications for designing interventions aimed at increasing mental disorder treatment among socio-economically disadvantaged people.
The development of algorithms for agile science and autonomous exploration has been pursued in contexts ranging from spacecraft to planetary rovers to unmanned aerial vehicles to autonomous underwater vehicles. In situations where time, mission resources and communications are limited and the future state of the operating environment is unknown, the capability of a vehicle to dynamically respond to changing circumstances without human guidance can substantially improve science return. Such capabilities are difficult to achieve in practice, however, because they require intelligent reasoning to utilize limited resources in an inherently uncertain environment. Here we discuss the development, characterization and field performance of two algorithms for autonomously collecting water samples on VALKYRIE (Very deep Autonomous Laser-powered Kilowatt-class Yo-yoing Robotic Ice Explorer), a glacier-penetrating cryobot deployed to the Matanuska Glacier, Alaska (Mission Control location: 61°42′09.3″N 147°37′23.2″W). We show performance on par with human performance across a wide range of mission morphologies using simulated mission data, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithms at autonomously collecting samples with high relative cell concentration during field operation. The development of such algorithms will help enable autonomous science operations in environments where constant real-time human supervision is impractical, such as penetration of ice sheets on Earth and high-priority planetary science targets like Europa.
Nova V705 Cas was discovered on 1993 December 7, several days before maximum light. The light curve indicates that t2 ≃ 40 d (see e.g. ), characteristic of dust-forming novae. The light curve went into decline on day 58, indicating the formation of an optically thick dust shell. IR spectra have been obtained regularly since outburst using the cooled grating spectrometer CGS4 on the United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT). We present here the results of ongoing IR spectroscopic monitoring of this nova.
Various transmission routes contribute to spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) in hospitalized patients. Patients with readmissions during which CRKP is again isolated (“CRKP readmission”) potentially contribute to transmission of CRKP.
To evaluate CRKP readmissions in the Consortium on Resistance against Carbapenems in K. pneumoniae (CRaCKLe).
Cohort study from December 24, 2011, through July 1, 2013.
Multicenter consortium of acute care hospitals in the Great Lakes region.
All patients who were discharged alive during the study period were included. Each patient was included only once at the time of the first CRKP-positive culture.
All readmissions within 90 days of discharge from the index hospitalization during which CRKP was again found were analyzed. Risk factors for CRKP readmission were evaluated in multivariable models.
Fifty-six (20%) of 287 patients who were discharged alive had a CRKP readmission. History of malignancy was associated with CRKP readmission (adjusted odds ratio [adjusted OR], 3.00 [95% CI, 1.32–6.65], P<.01). During the index hospitalization, 160 patients (56%) received antibiotic treatment against CRKP; the choice of regimen was associated with CRKP readmission (P=.02). Receipt of tigecycline-based therapy (adjusted OR, 5.13 [95% CI, 1.72–17.44], using aminoglycoside-based therapy as a reference in those treated with anti-CRKP antibiotics) was associated with CRKP readmission.
Hospitalized patients with CRKP—specifically those with a history of malignancy—are at high risk of readmission with recurrent CRKP infection or colonization. Treatment during the index hospitalization with a tigecycline-based regimen increases this risk.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(3):281–288
The most archaeologically visible dimension of the Classic Maya Collapse is the abandonment of monumental royal courts. Yet, in some cases, non-elite populations lived for centuries in and around Classic Maya centers without rulers. Processes of abandonment among Classic Maya commoners are detectable and reflect their own ritual and social practices divorced from the ritual performances undertaken by the ruling elite. We study the abandonment context and chronology of three domestic groups from the Contreras Valley, an agricultural community located on the outskirts of the Classic Maya center ofMinanha, Belize. There, several artifact assemblages were deposited at the time of abandonment, representing termination rituals. This study goes beyond the ideological dimension of termination rituals to examine how these ceremonies helped reshape the identity of social groups who were about to abandon their home. We explore how the last inhabitants of a mostly abandoned landscape lived through this process of gradual depopulation. Moreover, we evaluate potential explanations for the archaeological processes behind the occurrence or non-occurrence of termination rituals in different domestic groups.
To determine the rates of and risk factors for tigecycline nonsusceptibility among carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKPs) isolated from hospitalized patients
Multicenter prospective observational study
Acute care hospitals participating in the Consortium on Resistance against Carbapenems in Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRaCKle)
A cohort of 287 patients who had CRKPs isolated from clinical cultures during hospitalization
For the period from December 24, 2011 to October 1, 2013, the first hospitalization of each patient with a CRKP during which tigecycline susceptibility for the CRKP isolate was determined was included. Clinical data were entered into a centralized database, including data regarding pre-hospital origin. Breakpoints established by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) were used to interpret tigecycline susceptibility testing.
Of 287 patients included in the final cohort, 155 (54%) had tigecycline-susceptible CRKPs. Of all index isolates, 81 (28%) were tigecycline-intermediate and 51 (18%) were tigecycline resistant. In multivariate modeling, independent risk factors for tigecycline nonsusceptibility were (1) admission from a skilled nursing facility (OR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.51–4.21; P=.0004), (2) positive culture within 2 days of admission (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.06–3.15; P=.03), and (3) receipt of tigecycline within 14 days (OR, 4.38, 95% CI, 1.37–17.01, P=.02).
In hospitalized patients with CRKPs, tigecycline nonsusceptibility was more frequently observed in those admitted from skilled nursing facilities and occurred earlier during hospitalization. Skilled nursing facilities are an important target for interventions to decrease antibacterial resistance to antibiotics of last resort for treatment of CRKPs.
The present study investigated the relationship between the milk protein content of a rehydration solution and fluid balance after exercise-induced dehydration. On three occasions, eight healthy males were dehydrated to an identical degree of body mass loss (BML, approximately 1·8 %) by intermittent cycling in the heat, rehydrating with 150 % of their BML over 1 h with either a 60 g/l carbohydrate solution (C), a 40 g/l carbohydrate, 20 g/l milk protein solution (CP20) or a 20 g/l carbohydrate, 40 g/l milk protein solution (CP40). Urine samples were collected pre-exercise, post-exercise, post-rehydration and for a further 4 h. Subjects produced less urine after ingesting the CP20 or CP40 drink compared with the C drink (P< 0·01), and at the end of the study, more of the CP20 (59 (sd 12) %) and CP40 (64 (sd 6) %) drinks had been retained compared with the C drink (46 (sd 9) %) (P< 0·01). At the end of the study, whole-body net fluid balance was more negative for trial C ( − 470 (sd 154) ml) compared with both trials CP20 ( − 181 (sd 280) ml) and CP40 ( − 107 (sd 126) ml) (P< 0·01). At 2 and 3 h after drink ingestion, urine osmolality was greater for trials CP20 and CP40 compared with trial C (P< 0·05). The present study further demonstrates that after exercise-induced dehydration, a carbohydrate–milk protein solution is better retained than a carbohydrate solution. The results also suggest that high concentrations of milk protein are not more beneficial in terms of fluid retention than low concentrations of milk protein following exercise-induced dehydration.