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Jets from accreting black holes appear remarkably similar over eight orders of magnitude in black hole mass, with more massive black holes generally launching more powerful jets. For example, there is an observed correlation, termed the fundamental plane of black hole accretion, between black hole mass, radio luminosity, and X-ray luminosity. Here, we probe the high-mass tail (108–109M⊙) of the accreting black hole distribution with BL Lac objects. We build SEDs for hundreds of SDSS BL Lacs, and we use these SEDs to test the blazar sequence, a proposed anti-correlation between jet power and peak frequency. We then show our BL Lacs fit on the fundamental plane, supporting the non-linear scaling of jet radiation with black hole mass. The subset of BL Lacs considered here compose the largest sample yet used in the above types of studies, reducing potential selection effects and biases.
We observed two fields near M32 with the ACS/HRC (Program GO-10572, PI: T. Lauer) on board the Hubble Space Telescope, located at distances of about 1.8' and 5.4' (hereafter F1 and F2, respectively) from the center of M32. To obtain a very detailed and deep color-magnitude diagram (CMD) and to look for short period variability, we obtained time-series imaging of each field in 32-orbit-long exposures using the F435W (B) and F555W (V) filters, spanning a temporal range of 2 days per filter. We focus on our detection of variability on RR Lyrae variable stars, which represents the only way to obtain information about the presence of a very old population (larger than 10 Gyr) in M32 from optical data. Here we present results obtained from the detection of 31 RR Lyrae in these fields: 17 in F1 and 14 in F2. We claim we detected 7+4−3 RR Lyrae variables belonging to M32 in F1 thus indicating the presence of a metal-poor ancient population in M32.
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