To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Sociocultural and social cognitive theories have begun to make a lasting imprint on English Language Teaching (ELT) and learning as it is undertaken and understood today across a range of contexts (Steffensen and Kramsch ). This chapter reports on a study conducted with English language learners involved in Literature Circles (LCs) over an extended period and centres on an analysis of the discourse generated within these post-reading, group discussions. The chapter begins by contextualising LCs as a vehicle for reader response and collaborative engagement within an ecological perspective to second language (L2) development. Drawing on sociocultural theory (Lantolf, Thorne and Poehner ) and its application to collaborative engagement in a language learning environment, the discourse presented undergoes an ecologically grounded, dialogical analysis. This analysis interprets examples from the group conversations as affordances for language development identified as an emergent phenomenon, co-constructed and mediated by the support of peers, the shared reading experience and relevant scaffolding. The current study suggests that this dynamic combines collaborative interaction and interpersonal communication with ecosocial processes to promote spoken L2 development, where deep processing of shared interpretation, critical evaluation, collective noticing and expression of affect are externalised within the discussions.
Surgical site infections (SSIs) following colorectal surgery (CRS) are among the most common healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Reduction in colorectal SSI rates is an important goal for surgical quality improvement.
To examine rates of SSI in patients with and without cancer and to identify potential predictors of SSI risk following CRS
American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) data files for 2011–2013 from a sample of 12 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) member institutions were combined. Pooled SSI rates for colorectal procedures were calculated and risk was evaluated. The independent importance of potential risk factors was assessed using logistic regression.
Of 22 invited NCCN centers, 11 participated (50%). Colorectal procedures were selected by principal procedure current procedural technology (CPT) code. Cancer was defined by International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes.
The primary outcome of interest was 30-day SSI rate.
A total of 652 SSIs (11.06%) were reported among 5,893 CRSs. Risk of SSI was similar for patients with and without cancer. Among CRS patients with underlying cancer, disseminated cancer (SSI rate, 17.5%; odds ratio [OR], 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23–2.26; P=.001), ASA score ≥3 (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.09–1.83; P=.001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.06–2.53; P=.02), and longer duration of procedure were associated with development of SSI.
Patients with disseminated cancer are at a higher risk for developing SSI. ASA score >3, COPD, and longer duration of surgery predict SSI risk. Disseminated cancer should be further evaluated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in generating risk-adjusted outcomes.
Barbara M. Moskal, Colorado School of Mines,
Teri Reed, Dwight Look College of Engineering and Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering at Texas A;&M,
Scott A. Strong, Colorado School of Mines
A concern across the field of education, as well as within engineering education, is the identification of effective instructional approaches. “Effective” can be defined in many ways, including increased learning gains, improved attitudes, and changes in the general appeal of a subject or topic to students. To determine the effectiveness of an approach, it is often necessary to measure changes in student constructs over time or to acquire a snapshot of students’ performances at a given point. In addition, teachers and researchers may be concerned with determining whether their approaches are equally effective across different student populations.
In engineering education, each of these assessment purposes receives increased emphasis at the program and student level owing to the existence of an accreditation board, ABET, Inc. (formerly known as the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology or ABET; see www.abet.org/history.shtml). ABET, Inc. requests that each accredited program demonstrate that its graduating seniors have achieved a set of program outcomes that can be found at the referenced website.