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This chapter discusses the drawing principle in multimedia learning. It proposes that asking students to create drawings while reading text causes generative processing that leads to better learning outcomes. In drawing, students have to translate the verbal text information into a picture that represents spatial relationships among functional elements referred to in the text. Asking students to draw a picture of the text content as they read encourages them to actively engage in deep cognitive and metacognitive processing and thus fosters deep understanding of the material to be learned. The drawing principle has been supported by many studies, especially when students engage in drawing using paper and pencil. An important logistical issue is to create a form of drawing activity that minimizes extraneous cognitive processing by providing appropriate support for drawing.
This chapter examines the research evidence concerning four principles of multimedia design that are based on social cues: the personalization, voice, image, and embodiment principles. The personalization principle is that people learn more deeply when the words in a multimedia presentation are in conversational style rather than formal style. The voice principle is that people learn more deeply when the words in a multimedia message are spoken in a human voice rather than in a machine voice. The image principle is that people do not necessarily learn more deeply from a multimedia presentation when the speaker's image is on the screen rather than not on the screen. The embodiment principle is that people learn more deeply when on-screen agents display human like gesturing, movement, eye contact, and facial expressions. The research reviewed in the chapter shows that instructional designers should be sensitive to social considerations as well as cognitive considerations.