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The aim of this study is to establish a guidance for device retrieval based on comprehensive bench tests.
Device embolisation remains a major complication in transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus. Although percutaneous retrieval is feasible in the majority of cases, surgical retrieval may be required in complicated circumstances. However, the methods of transcatheter device retrieval have not been completely established.
Bench tests of device retrieval were performed to verify the appropriate retrieval method according to device type/size. The devices used for testing were Amplatzer Septal Occluder (Abbott, Chicago, IL, United States of America), Figulla Flex II (Occlutech GmbH, Jena, Germany), Amplatzer Duct Occluder-I (Abbott), Amplatzer Duct Occluder-II (Abbott), and Amplatzer Vascular Plug-II (Abbott). The retrieval equipment constituted diagnostic catheters (multipurpose catheter and right Judkins catheter, 4-Fr or 5-Fr, Gadelius Medical, Tokyo, Japan), delivery sheath and cables for each device, Amplatz goose neck snares (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, United States of America), OSYPKA CATCHER (Osypka ag, Rheinfelden-Herten, Germany), and OSYPKA LASSOS (Osypka). We investigated the retrieval equipment and sheath sizes required for a successful retrieval procedure for variously sized devices.
For patent ductus arteriosus devices, the type of snare and the snaring position are considered important. For atrial septal defect devices, simple snare capture or a double-snare technique with a sufficiently large sheath is effective. Special care should be taken when using the OSYPKA CATCHER for device retrieval.
The results of this study may assist in the selection of both capture devices and a retrieval sheath or a catheter for complete retrieval.
Exercise stress echocardiography and layer-specific strains are emerging as important tools for cardiac assessment. This study was aimed to evaluate layer-specific strains and torsion parameters during exercise in order to investigate the characteristics of cardiac dysfunction in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and to detect subclinical left ventricular dysfunction.
Materials and Methods:
Thirteen patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (median age, 17.3 [interquartile range, 14.5–22.9] years; 6 males) and 13 controls (median age, 28.5 [interquartile range, 27.6–31.6] years; 13 males) underwent echocardiography at rest and during supine exercise. Layer-specific longitudinal strain and circumferential strain of three myocardial layers (endocardium, midmyocardium, and epicardium), torsion, and untwisting rate were measured using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography.
Peak endocardial papillary circumferential strain (−21.1 ± 2.6% vs. −25.8 ± 3.8%, p = 0.007), midmyocardial apical circumferential strain (−11.1 ± 4.0% vs. −15.6 ± 3.2%, p = 0.001), epicardial apical circumferential strain (−11.1 ± 4.0% vs. −15.6 ± 3.2%, p = 0.021), and torsion (8.9 ± 6.0 vs. 14.9 ± 4.8 degree, p = 0.021) were significantly lower in the repaired tetralogy of Fallot group than in the control group during exercise, though no significant difference was found between patients and controls at rest.
Analysis of layer-specific strains and torsion parameters during exercise could detect subclinical left ventricular dysfunction in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot, which might reflect potential myocardial damage, at a stage where these parameters have normal values at rest. This finding provides new insight into the mechanisms of cardiac dysfunction in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot.
To date, no transcatheter valve has been approved for placement in the pulmonary position in Japan. Consequently, percutaneous balloon dilatation may be advised for stenotic right ventricular outflow lesions; however, technical difficulties persist, particularly in adults. We describe the acute haemodynamic changes and outcome of balloon dilatation of right ventricular outflow obstruction using triple ultra-high pressure balloons. This is the first report of such a technical development, which seems to be safe and effective. A total of three adult patients, aged 25, 29, and 37 years, with severe conduit obstruction were referred for balloon dilatation. A triple ultra-high-pressure balloon technique was used in the three patients after unsuccessful double-balloon dilatation, or for highly calcified lesions, which were expected to require ultra-high pressure for effective relief. Following balloon dilatation, the pressure gradient decreased from 24, 30, 65 to 3, 25, 30 mmHg, respectively. There were no procedural complications except slightly increased pulmonary regurgitation. Balloon dilatation using a triple ultra-high pressure balloon technique can be a safe and effective palliative procedure for conduit obstruction in adult patients.
On the assumption that the diameter of the reference vessel might determine the thickness of neointimal coverage of stents placed in the pulmonary arteries, we analyzed the angiograms of 28 lesions in 17 patients who underwent follow-up cardiac catheterization. Excluding 2 lesions where late stenosis was determined mainly by recoil of greater than 30%, we investigated the neointimal thickness of 26 lesions in 16 patients. Several factors that might contribute to late re-stenosis were also analyzed. Age and body weight at implantation ranged from 0.8 to 20 years, with a median of 6 years, and from 6.8 to 77.5 kg, with a median of 17.6 kg. Follow-up interval was from 6 to 15 months, with a median of 6 months.
There was a significant increase in diameter, as well as a reduction in pressure gradient, immediately after the implantation of stents. Although there was no significant difference between the achieved diameter and the diameter of the stent at follow-up, the diameter of the lesion at follow-up was significantly smaller than the diameter achieved by stenting. The increase in the pressure gradient at follow-up was slightly greater in 4 lesions where the late reduction in diameter was greater than 30% than in the 18 lesions where this was less than 30% (p = 0.05). The diameter of the reference vessel, and the diameter by stenting correlated with the late reduction in diameter. All lesions with diameter reduced greater than 30% had a reference diameter of less than 6.1 mm, and a diameter achieved by stenting of less than 6.5 mm. Late loss in luminal diameter directly correlated with the thickness of the neointimal coverage. In conclusion, close observation should be mandatory following implantation of stents in small pulmonary arteries.
Over a 25-year period, we encountered 12 patients who died suddenly with coronary arterial lesions due to Kawasaki disease. We report their clinical course, and analyze the happenings of their deaths. Of the 12 patients, 10 were dead on arrival at hospital. Their age at death ranged from 13 months to 27 years, with a median of 16 years, and the interval from the onset of Kawasaki disease to death ranged from 2 months to 24 years. In 4 patients, death was found to be due to myocardial infarction, while in the remaining 8, it could not be determined. In 7 patients, coronary angiograms obtained less than 4 months after the acute onset of Kawasaki disease showed lesions bilaterally, most being giant aneurysms. Myocardial infarction had occurred in 6 patients prior to their death. In 1 patient of the late 1970s, who collapsed after running, cardiac sequels had not been suspected prior to autopsy. During the 1980s, 3 infants with bilateral giant aneurysms died within a year of the initial onset of Kawasaki disease, with acute myocardial infarction being the cause in 2 of them. In the late 1990s, and the 2000s, 5 patients died suddenly with left ventricular dysfunction, their ejection fractions being less than 40 percent more than 20 years after the initial onset of Kawasaki disease. Prior to their sudden deaths, they had had no cardiac events for many years, but had suffered previous myocardial infarctions. Multifocal premature ventricular contractions, and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, are probable risk factors in such patients. Careful follow-up, checking for ventricular arrhythmia, is needed to prevent sudden death in patients suffering left ventricular dysfunction in the setting of Kawasaki disease.
We implanted either large or medium Palmaz stents, or a Palmaz Corinthian stent, in various stenotic vessels, such as the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins, aorta, or superior caval vein. Using angiograms, we measured the diameter of the stenotic vessel before or after the implantation, the minimal diameter of the lumen, the minimal diameter of the largest fully expanded balloon used to expand the stent, and the diameter immediately after withdrawal of the balloon.
The minimal diameter of the fully expanded balloon, and the minimal diameter of the lumen subsequent to expansion, were 8.2 ± 2.4, and 7.7 ± 2.3 mm, giving an absolute recoil of 0.5 ± 0.4 mm, and a proportional recoil of 7 ± 4%. There was no significant difference in either the absolute or proportional recoil for any of the stents, or for any of the different stenotic vessels. The proportional recoil correlated linearly with the minimal diameter of the lumen prior to the procedure, and with the ratio of the stenosis to the balloon, while the diameter of the stenotic vessels, the minimal diameter of the largest fully expanded balloon, the proportional stenosis prior to the procedure, and the ratio of the balloon to the diameter of the stenotic vessel, had no significant correlation with proportional recoil. The proportional recoil exceeded more than one-tenth when the minimal diameter of the lumen prior to the dilation was less than 3 mm, or the ratio of the balloon to the stenosis was greater than 3.0.
An absolute recoil of around 1 mm is common when a large or medium Palmaz, or a Palmaz Corinthian stent, is implanted in great vessels. Balloons with a diameter of approximately one-tenth greater than that of the adjacent vessel may be needed if the minimal diameter of the lumen is small prior to the procedure.
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