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This work investigates the retention and transport of chemical species and abrasive particles during chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) of copper (Cu). “Slurry step-flow” experiments, in which the concentrations of the chemicals and abrasives in the slurry are altered in steps during polishing were conducted with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)/glycine based slurries. Two different pads, Suba-500 and IC 1400 (with k grooves), were compared in terms of their slurry retention and transport characteristics. With these experiments, it has been shown that both the abrasives and chemicals are constantly replaced during a typical CMP process. Better polishing performance of the IC 1400 over Suba 500 is a result of improved transport of the chemicals and the abrasives between the wafer/pad interface.
The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of universal salt iodization (USI) on the prevalence of iodine deficiency in the population of an area previously known to have severe iodine deficiency in India.
In a cross-sectional survey, a total of 2860 subjects residing in fifty-three villages of four sub-districts of Gonda District were examined for goitre and urinary iodine concentration. Free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were also measured. Salt samples from households were collected for estimation of iodine content.
A reduction in goitre prevalence was observed from 69 % reported in 1982 to 27·7 % assessed in 2007. However, 34 % of villages still had very high endemicity of goitre (goitre prevalence >30 %). Twenty-three per cent of households consumed a negligible amount (<5 ppm) and 56 % of households consumed an insufficient amount (5–15 ppm) of iodine from salt.
Although there was an overall improvement in iodine nutrition as revealed by decreased goitre prevalence and increased median urinary iodine levels, there were several pockets of severe deficiency that require a more targeted approach. Poor coverage, the use of unpackaged crystal salt with inadequate iodine and the washing of salt before use by 90 % of rural households are the major causes of persisting iodine-deficiency disorders. This demonstrates lapses in USI implementation, lack of monitoring and the need to identify hot spots. We advocate strengthening the USI programme with a mass education component, the supply of adequately iodized salt and the implementation of complementary strategies for vulnerable groups, particularly neonates and lactating mothers.
Let T1, i = 1, 2 be measurable transformations which define bounded composition operators C Ti on L2 of a σ-finite measure space. Let us denote the Radon-Nikodym derivative of with respect to m by hi, i = 1, 2. The main result of this paper is that if and are both M-hyponormal with h1 ≤ M2(h2 o T2) a.e. and h2 ≤ M2(h1 o T1) a.e., then for all positive integers m, n and p, * is -hyponormal. As a consequence, we see that if is an M-hyponormal composition operator, then is -hyponormal for all positive integers n.
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