Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. is an important fruit crop of the Thar Desert of India. About 330 accessions and cultivars collected from various parts of India are currently being maintained at a farm in the Central Institute for Arid Horticulture. Utilization of such a large collection of germplasm for breeding and crop improvement is difficult. Therefore, in the present study, using a heuristic approach based on phenotypic characters, we identified 52 accessions that represented a core collection, with a coverage of 100% and a coincidence rate of 98.1%. No significant difference was observed with respect to either the Shannon–Weaver or the Nei diversity index for qualitative traits, mean values and ranges for quantitative traits or clustering patterns between the core and whole collections. The core collection represents the entire range of diversity with minimum redundancy and should be useful for the conservation and utilization of Z. mauritiana germplasm.