Studies of stellar populations have been reinvigorated during the last decade by the advent of large-area sky surveys such as SDSS, 2MASS, RAVE, and others. These data, together with theoretical and modeling advances, are revolutionizing our understanding of the nature of the Milky Way, and galaxy formation and evolution in general. The abundance of substructure in the multi-dimensional space of various observables, such as position, kinematics, and metallicity, is by now proven beyond doubt, and demonstrates the importance of mergers in the growth of galaxies. Unlike smooth models that involve simple components, the new data reviewed here clearly exhibit many irregular structures, such as the Sagittarius dwarf tidal stream and the Virgo and Pisces overdensities in the halo, and the Monoceros stream closer to the Galactic plane. These recent developments have made it clear that the Milky Way is a complex and dynamic structure, one that is still being shaped by the merging of neighboring smaller galaxies. Here we summarize developments over the last decade in our mapping of the stellar content of the Milky Way, as well as recent attempts to map the dark matter halo by Loebman et al. (2012) and ISM dust distribution by Berry et al. (2012). We also briefly discuss the next generation of wide-field sky surveys, exemplified by Gaia and LSST, which will improve measurement precision manyfold, and comprise billions of individual stars.