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Viruses are more common than bacteria in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. Little is known, however, about the frequency of respiratory viral testing and its associations with antimicrobial utilization.
Retrospective cohort study.
The study included 179 US hospitals.
Adults admitted with pneumonia between July 2010 and June 2015.
We assessed the frequency of respiratory virus testing and compared antimicrobial utilization, mortality, length of stay, and costs between tested versus untested patients, and between virus-positive versus virus-negative patients.
Among 166,273 patients with pneumonia on admission, 40,787 patients (24.5%) were tested for respiratory viruses, 94.8% were tested for influenza, and 20.7% were tested for other viruses. Viral assays were positive in 5,133 of 40,787 tested patients (12.6%), typically for influenza and rhinovirus. Tested patients were younger and had fewer comorbidities than untested patients, but patients with positive viral assays were older and had more comorbidities than those with negative assays. Blood cultures were positive for bacterial pathogens in 2.7% of patients with positive viral assays versus 5.3% of patients with negative viral tests (P < .001). Antibacterial courses were shorter for virus-positive versus -negative patients overall (mean 5.5 vs 6.4 days; P < .001) but varied by bacterial testing: 8.1 versus 8.0 days (P = .60) if bacterial tests were positive; 5.3 versus 6.1 days (P < .001) if bacterial tests were negative; and 3.3 versus 5.2 days (P < .001) if bacterial tests were not obtained (interaction P < .001).
A minority of patients hospitalized with pneumonia were tested for respiratory viruses; only a fraction of potential viral pathogens were assayed; and patients with positive viral tests often received long antibacterial courses.
Fifty to ninety percent of individuals with Major Neurocognitive Disorder (MNCD) have Neuropsychiatric Symptoms (NPS)1. Agitation and aggression are amongst the most persistent and treatment-refractory symptom clusters. Patients with these NPS are associated with increased risk of institutionalization, psychotropic medication use, caregiver burden, and mortality2.
Safe and effective treatments for NPS are lacking. Consensus guidelines emphasize the initial use of non-pharmacologic approaches though supportive evidence is limited3.
Extensive research has established the safety and efficacy of ECT in elderly patients with depression and other psychiatric conditions6. Clinical experience suggests that ECT is a valuable treatment option in MNCD-related treatment refractory NPS cases7-10. However, data supporting the efficacy and safety of this practice is scant.
Materials and Method:
Patients admitted to the geriatric psychiatry inpatient units who meet the inclusion criteria, were recruited from 2 Vancouver sites and 3 unit at Ontario Shores. These patients had an anesthesia consultation to evaluate their safety of going through ECT. Consent was obtained from their substitute decision makers. All patients enrolled are already on psychotropic medications.
In Europe, the incidence of psychotic disorder is high in certain migrant and minority ethnic groups (hence: ‘minorities’). However, it is unknown how the incidence pattern for these groups varies within this continent. Our objective was to compare, across sites in France, Italy, Spain, the UK and the Netherlands, the incidence rates for minorities and the incidence rate ratios (IRRs, minorities v. the local reference population).
The European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene–Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study was conducted between 2010 and 2015. We analyzed data on incident cases of non-organic psychosis (International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition, codes F20–F33) from 13 sites.
The standardized incidence rates for minorities, combined into one category, varied from 12.2 in Valencia to 82.5 per 100 000 in Paris. These rates were generally high at sites with high rates for the reference population, and low at sites with low rates for the reference population. IRRs for minorities (combined into one category) varied from 0.70 (95% CI 0.32–1.53) in Valencia to 2.47 (95% CI 1.66–3.69) in Paris (test for interaction: p = 0.031). At most sites, IRRs were higher for persons from non-Western countries than for those from Western countries, with the highest IRRs for individuals from sub-Saharan Africa (adjusted IRR = 3.23, 95% CI 2.66–3.93).
Incidence rates vary by region of origin, region of destination and their combination. This suggests that they are strongly influenced by the social context.
Understanding differences in social-emotional behavior can help identify atypical development. This study examined the differences in social-emotional development in children at increased risk of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis (infant siblings of children diagnosed with the disorder). Parents completed the Brief Infant-Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) to determine its ability to flag children with later-diagnosed ASD in a high-risk (HR) sibling population. Parents of HR (n = 311) and low-risk (LR; no family history of ASD; n = 127) children completed the BITSEA when their children were 18 months old and all children underwent a diagnostic assessment for ASD at age 3 years. All six subscales of the BITSEA (Problems, Competence, ASD Problems, ASD Competence, Total ASD Score, and Red Flags) distinguished between those in the HR group who were diagnosed with ASD (n = 84) compared to non-ASD-diagnosed children (both HR-N and LR). One subscale (BITSEA Competence) differentiated between the HR children not diagnosed with ASD and the LR group. The results suggest that tracking early social-emotional development may have implications for all HR children, as they are at increased risk of ASD but also other developmental or mental health conditions.
Cognitive models propose that behavioural responses to voices maintain distress by preventing disconfirmation of negative beliefs about voices. We used Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM) to examine the hypothesized maintenance role of behavioural responses during daily life.
Thirty-one outpatients with frequent voices completed a smartphone-based ESM questionnaire 10 times a day over 9 days, assessing voice-related distress; resistance and compliance responses to voices; voice characteristics (intensity and negative content); appraisals of voice dominance, uncontrollability and intrusiveness.
In line with predictions, behavioural responses were associated with voice appraisals (dominance and uncontrollability), but not voice characteristics. Greater resistance and compliance were reported in moments of increased voice distress, but these associations did not persist after controlling for concurrent voice appraisals and characteristics. Voice distress was predicted by appraisals, and, unexpectedly, also by voice characteristics. As predicted, compliance and resistance were related to increases in distress at subsequent timepoints, whilst antecedent voice appraisals and characteristics had no such effect. Compliance, but not resistance, additionally predicted subsequent increases in voice uncontrollability. In both cases, the reverse models showed no association, indicating directional effects of responses on subsequent distress, and of compliance on uncontrollability appraisals.
These results provide support for the cognitive model by suggesting that momentary behavioural and emotional responses to voices are associated with concurrent negative voice appraisals. Findings suggest that behavioural responses may be driven by voice appraisals, rather than directly by distress, and may in turn maintain voice appraisals and associated distress during the course of daily life.
Less is known about the relationship between conduct disorder (CD), callous–unemotional (CU) traits, and positive and negative parenting in youth compared to early childhood. We combined traditional univariate analyses with a novel machine learning classifier (Angle-based Generalized Matrix Learning Vector Quantization) to classify youth (N = 756; 9–18 years) into typically developing (TD) or CD groups with or without elevated CU traits (CD/HCU, CD/LCU, respectively) using youth- and parent-reports of parenting behavior. At the group level, both CD/HCU and CD/LCU were associated with high negative and low positive parenting relative to TD. However, only positive parenting differed between the CD/HCU and CD/LCU groups. In classification analyses, performance was best when distinguishing CD/HCU from TD groups and poorest when distinguishing CD/HCU from CD/LCU groups. Positive and negative parenting were both relevant when distinguishing CD/HCU from TD, negative parenting was most relevant when distinguishing between CD/LCU and TD, and positive parenting was most relevant when distinguishing CD/HCU from CD/LCU groups. These findings suggest that while positive parenting distinguishes between CD/HCU and CD/LCU, negative parenting is associated with both CD subtypes. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple parenting behaviors in CD with varying levels of CU traits in late childhood/adolescence.
Even though recent research indicates that sexual symptoms are highly prevalent in post-traumatic stress disorder following childhood sexual abuse and cause severe distress, current treatments neither address them nor are they effective in reducing them. This might be due to a lack of understanding of sexual symptoms' specific role in the often complex and comorbid psychopathology of post-traumatic stress disorder following childhood abuse.
Post-traumatic, dissociative, depressive, and sexual symptoms were assessed in 445 inpatients with post-traumatic stress disorder following childhood sexual abuse. Comorbidity structure was analyzed using a partial correlation network with regularization.
A total of 360 patients (81%) reported difficulties engaging in sexual activities and 102 patients (23%) reported to suffer from their sexual preferences. Difficulties engaging in sexual activities were linked to depressive and hyperarousal symptoms, whereas sexual preferences causing distress were linked to anger and dissociation. Dissociative amnesia, visual intrusions, and physical reactions to trauma reminders were of central importance for the network. Dissociative amnesia, depressed mood, lack of energy, and difficulties engaging in sexual activities were identified as bridge symptoms. Local clustering analysis indicated the non-redundancy of sexual symptoms.
Sexual symptoms are highly prevalent in survivors of childhood sexual abuse with post-traumatic stress disorder. Further research is needed regarding the link of difficulties engaging in sexual activities, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as regarding the association of dissociation and sexual preferences causing distress. Sexual symptoms require consideration in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder following childhood sexual abuse.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: A particularly debilitating consequence of stroke is alexia, an acquired impairment in reading. Cognitive models aim to characterize how information is processed based on behavioral data. If we can concurrently characterize how neural networks process that information, we can enhance the models to reflect the neuronal interactions that drive them. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: There will be 10 unimpaired adult readers. Two functional localizer tasks, deigned to consistently activate robust language areas, identify the regions of interest that process the cognitive reading functions (orthography, phonology, semantics). Another task, designed for this experiment, analyses the reading-related functional-connectivity between these areas by presenting words classified along the attributes of frequency, concreteness, and regularity, which utilize specific cognitive routes, and a visual control. Connectivity is analyzed during word reading overall vs. a control condition to determine overall reading-related connectivity, and while reading words that have high vs. low attribute values, to determine if cognitive processing routes bias the neural reading network connectivity. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The localizer analysis is expected to result in the activation of canonical reading areas. The degree of functional connectivity observed between these regions is expected to depend on the degree to which each cognitive route is utilized to read a given word. After orthographic, phonologic, and semantic areas have been identified, the connectivity analysis should show that there is high correlation between all three types of areas during reading compared to the control condition. Then the frequency, regularity, and concreteness of the words being read should alter the reliance on the pathways between these area types. This would support the hypothesized pattern of connectivity as predicted by the cognitive reading routes. Otherwise, it will show how the neural reading network differs from the cognitive model. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The results will determine the relationship between the cognitive reading model and the neural reading network. Cognitive models show what processes occur in the brain, but neural networks show how these processes occur. By relating these components, we obtain a more complete view of reading in the brain, which can inform future alexia treatments.
The purpose of this study was to advance the current understanding of the daily dynamics that are involved in raising a child with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Specifically, we examined the role of mindful parenting and of day-to-day variation in parents’ psychological needs and child behavior in explaining day-to-day variation in parents’ autonomy-supportive, psychologically controlling, and responsive parenting behavior. Parents (N = 58) of children with CP (Mage = 12.68 years) participated in a 7-day diary study. Multilevel analyses indicated that parents’ autonomy-supportive, psychologically controlling, and responsive behaviors fluctuate considerably between days. Further, daily fluctuations in both child behavior and parents’ own psychological needs were found to be associated with this daily variability in parenting. In addition, interindividual differences in mindful parenting were associated positively with parents’ responsiveness and negatively with psychologically controlling parenting across the week. These findings point towards the changeability of parenting behavior among parents of a child with CP and suggest that interventions targeting parenting behavior in the context of CP will be most effective when taking into account both the parents’ and the child's functioning.
The ‘jumping to conclusions’ (JTC) bias is associated with both psychosis and general cognition but their relationship is unclear. In this study, we set out to clarify the relationship between the JTC bias, IQ, psychosis and polygenic liability to schizophrenia and IQ.
A total of 817 first episode psychosis patients and 1294 population-based controls completed assessments of general intelligence (IQ), and JTC, and provided blood or saliva samples from which we extracted DNA and computed polygenic risk scores for IQ and schizophrenia.
The estimated proportion of the total effect of case/control differences on JTC mediated by IQ was 79%. Schizophrenia polygenic risk score was non-significantly associated with a higher number of beads drawn (B = 0.47, 95% CI −0.21 to 1.16, p = 0.17); whereas IQ PRS (B = 0.51, 95% CI 0.25–0.76, p < 0.001) significantly predicted the number of beads drawn, and was thus associated with reduced JTC bias. The JTC was more strongly associated with the higher level of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in controls, including after controlling for IQ (B = −1.7, 95% CI −2.8 to −0.5, p = 0.006), but did not relate to delusions in patients.
Our findings suggest that the JTC reasoning bias in psychosis might not be a specific cognitive deficit but rather a manifestation or consequence, of general cognitive impairment. Whereas, in the general population, the JTC bias is related to PLEs, independent of IQ. The work has the potential to inform interventions targeting cognitive biases in early psychosis.
The classical twin design relies on a number of strong number of assumptions in order to yield unbiased estimates of heritability. This includes the equal environments assumption — that monozygotic and dizygotic twins experience similar degrees of environmental similarity — an assumption that is likely to be violated in practice for many traits of interest. An alternative method of estimating heritability that does not suffer from many of these limitations is to model trait similarity between sibling pairs as a function of their empirical genome-wide identity by descent sharing, estimated from genetic markers. In this review, I recount the story behind Nick Martin’s and my development of this method, our first attempts at applying it in a human population and more recent studies using the original and related methods to estimate trait heritability.
Daily use of high-potency cannabis has been reported to carry a high risk for developing a psychotic disorder. However, the evidence is mixed on whether any pattern of cannabis use is associated with a particular symptomatology in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients.
We analysed data from 901 FEP patients and 1235 controls recruited across six countries, as part of the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study. We used item response modelling to estimate two bifactor models, which included general and specific dimensions of psychotic symptoms in patients and psychotic experiences in controls. The associations between these dimensions and cannabis use were evaluated using linear mixed-effects models analyses.
In patients, there was a linear relationship between the positive symptom dimension and the extent of lifetime exposure to cannabis, with daily users of high-potency cannabis having the highest score (B = 0.35; 95% CI 0.14–0.56). Moreover, negative symptoms were more common among patients who never used cannabis compared with those with any pattern of use (B = −0.22; 95% CI −0.37 to −0.07). In controls, psychotic experiences were associated with current use of cannabis but not with the extent of lifetime use. Neither patients nor controls presented differences in depressive dimension related to cannabis use.
Our findings provide the first large-scale evidence that FEP patients with a history of daily use of high-potency cannabis present with more positive and less negative symptoms, compared with those who never used cannabis or used low-potency types.
Wholegrain consumption is linked to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Evidence from randomized controlled trials have established that the consumption of wholegrain oats lowers blood cholesterol, via a mechanism partly mediated by β-glucan soluble fiber. However, oats contain an array of phenolic acids, including ferulic acid and also structurally related avenanthramides, which may also contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of oat intake. We investigated whether 4 weeks, daily consumption of oat phenolics leads to improvement in markers of CVD risk men and women.In a 3 arm crossover single-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 28 volunteers consumed either: 1) oatmeal/oatcake intervention (-containing 48.9 mg of phenolic acids and 19.2 mg of avenanthramides); 2) oatbran concentrate + rice porridge/wheat cracker intervention (-containing 38.4 mg of phenolic acids and 0.5 mg of avenanthramides) or 3) rice porridge/wheat cracker intervention (containing 13.8 mg of phenolic acids). All treatments were matched in soluble fiber (4.8g) and energy (500kcal). The primary endpoint was FMD and other cardiovascular endpoints were blood pressure, LDI, LDL/HDL cholesterol, platelets and endothelial cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). All measures were taken at baseline and after three, 4 week long intervention periods and two washout periods.Our data indicates an increase by 1.09 % ± 0.41 %(Mean ± SEM) in FMD response following high phenolic oat intake with a significant difference (P = 0.007) between baseline and post-intervention. Consumption of high phenolic oats also led to a significant improvement in 24-hour SBP, day time SBP and night time SBP (P < 0.01, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05) and day time and night time DBP (p < 0.05). There was also a significant decrease with total and LDL cholesterol after the consumption of moderate and high phenolic oat interventions (P < 0.05) and a small improvement in LDI (both Ach and SNP) but not significant. The number of resting endothelial EVs were also found to be increasing after the consumption of high phenolic oats.The findings of this study may provide evidence about the role of oat phenolic acids and avenanthramides in cardiovascular health and contribute to more effective public health advice about the consumption of oats and healthy cardiovascular aging.
In 2018, the Alliance for Open Media (AOMedia) finalized its first video compression format AV1, which is jointly developed by the industry consortium of leading video technology companies. The main goal of AV1 is to provide an open source and royalty-free video coding format that substantially outperforms state-of-the-art codecs available on the market in compression efficiency while remaining practical decoding complexity as well as being optimized for hardware feasibility and scalability on modern devices. To give detailed insights into how the targeted performance and feasibility is realized, this paper provides a technical overview of key coding techniques in AV1. Besides, the coding performance gains are validated by video compression tests performed with the libaom AV1 encoder against the libvpx VP9 encoder. Preliminary comparison with two leading HEVC encoders, x265 and HM, and the reference software of VVC is also conducted on AOM's common test set and an open 4k set.
Endothelial dysfunction is a predictor for cardiovascular disease risk and is a key feature of atherosclerosis. Poor diet quality, including consumption of saturated fat-rich, high-refined carbohydrate snack foods, may have adverse effects on endothelial function. Thus, snack foods, which contribute an average of 20% of energy intake in the UK adult population, present an easily identifiable target to improve vascular health. Almonds are nutrient-dense foods that are rich in unsaturated fats, fibre, minerals and non-nutrient bioactives (NNB), and may have health benefits by displacing snacks high in refined carbohydrates, enriching the diet with micronutrients and NNB, and/or low lipid bioaccessibility. Human clinical trials have demonstrated LDL cholesterol-lowering effects of daily almond consumption, yet the effects on endothelial function are unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether replacing habitual snacks (20% estimated daily energy requirements) with almonds had any impact on endothelium-dependent vasodilation, measured by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) using ultrasound imaging of the brachial artery following reactive hyperaemia. A randomised, controlled, parallel trial in adult regular snack consumers aged 30–70 y at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease was conducted, including a 2-week run-in period with control snacks and a 6-week intervention period. Control sweet and savoury mini muffin snacks were developed to replicate the average UK snack nutrient profile, which was calculated from snack foods identified in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) database (55% energy from carbohydrate, 36% total fat (14% saturated fat), and 10% protein). One hundred and nine volunteers (77 females and 32 males; mean age 56 y) were enrolled in the study and 107 were randomised to isocaloric treatments, 1) control muffins, or 2) dry roasted whole almonds; 105 participants completed the study. Almonds significantly increased FMD relative to control (mean difference 3.6%, 95% CI 1.7, 5.5; P < 0.001), indicating improved endothelial function, and LDL-cholesterol (mean difference -0.25 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.47, -0.03; P = 0.030) significantly decreased adjusted with sex, age and baseline BMI and baseline dependent outcome values. Snacking on whole almonds as a replacement for snacks high in refined starch and sugar, and low in fibre and unsaturated fatty acids, improves endothelial function. The results of this study provide further evidence for the importance of nuts in dietary strategies to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease.
Indigenous health research in Canada has a chequered past and has been identified as problematic and lacking in appropriate collaboration with Indigenous people. The Tri-Council Policy Statement on Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans, Chapter 9 describes ethical conduct of research regarding First Nations, Inuit, and Métis Peoples. First Nations Ownership, Control, Access, and Possession (OCAP®) Principles highlight the necessity of Indigenous engagement and governance. To ensure that the aims and activities of the research being developed are in full and meaningful partnership with Indigenous peoples and communities, community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods provide a process in which full engagement is possible. Research utilizing secondary data sets, such as routinely collected health administrative data, should no longer be excluded from this approach. Our aim was to describe how our research team of academic researchers and a national Indigenous health organization adapted CBPR methods in a research project using previously collected data to examine end-of-life health care service delivery gaps for Indigenous people in Ontario. We describe the process of how we developed our research partnership and how grounding principles and Indigenous ways of knowing guided our work together. Through the adaptation of CBPR methods, our research partnership illustrates a process of engagement that can guide others hoping to conduct Indigenous health research using previously collected data. We also present a transparent research agreement negotiated equally by a national Indigenous health organization and research scientists, which can also be used as a framework for others wishing to establish similar research partnerships. Ensuring that Indigenous perspectives are central to and reflected in the research process is essential when using health administrative data.
Suicide is a leading cause of premature death in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Although exposure to stressors can play a part in the pathways to death by suicide, there is evidence that some people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia can be resilient to the impact of suicide triggers.
To investigate factors that contribute to psychological resilience to suicidal thoughts and behaviours from the perspectives of people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia.
A qualitative design was used, involving semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Twenty individuals with non-affective psychosis or schizophrenia diagnoses who had experience of suicide thoughts and behaviours participated in the study. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and examined using inductive thematic analysis.
Participants reported that psychological resilience to suicidal thoughts and behaviours involved ongoing effort. This ongoing effort encompassed: (a) understanding experiences (including reconciliation to mental health experiences and seeking reasons to live), (b) active behaviours (including talking to people and keeping occupied), and (c) relationship dynamics (including feeling supported by significant others and mental health professionals).
Psychological resilience was described as a dynamic process that developed over time through the experiences of psychosis and the concomitant suicidal experiences. Psychological resilience can be understood using a multicomponential, dynamic approach that integrates buffering, recovery and maintenance resilience models. In order to nurture psychological resilience, interventions should focus on supporting the understanding and management of psychosis symptoms and concomitant suicidal experiences.