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The purpose was to examine the associations among body weight status, blood pressure and daily Na intake among grade 7 students from south-western Ontario, Canada.
Cross-sectional. Data were collected using the Food Behaviour Questionnaire, including a 24 h diet recall. Measured height and weight were used to determine BMI. Blood pressure was taken manually using mercury sphygmomanometers.
Twenty-six schools in south-western Ontario, Canada.
Grade 7 students (n 1068).
Body weight status indicated 1 % were underweight, 56 % normal weight, 23 % overweight and 20 % were obese. Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 108·3 (sd 10·3) mmHg and 66·0 (sd 7·5) mmHg, respectively, and mean Na intake was 2799 (sd 1539) mg/d. Bivariate analyses suggested that SBP (P < 0·001) and DBP (P < 0·001) were significantly different by body weight status, yet no associations were observed for Na. Adjusted for gender, ethnicity and under-reporting, participants were more likely to be overweight/obese if they had higher SBP (v. lower: OR = 1·06, 95 % CI 1·05, 1·08, P < 0·001), higher DBP (v. lower: OR = 1·02, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·04, P = 0·043) and higher intakes of Na (3rd v. 1st quartile: OR = 1·72, 95 % CI 1·14, 2·59, P = 0·009; 4th v. 1st quartile: OR = 2·88, 95 % CI, 1·76, 4·73, P < 0·001).
High intakes of Na, coupled with high SBP and DBP, were associated with overweight and obesity status among the grade 7 sample from south-western Ontario, Canada.
The ovarian hormones stimulate the development of the reproductive system, induce the development of secondary sexual characteristics, and promote a receptive endometrium for the growth and development of the proconceptus. The development of the ovary is dependent on local and endocrine factors that can be the target of endocrine disruptors. The T-shaped uterus seen in women exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) could represent a narrow and more branched structure, similar to the structure of the fallopian tube. Müllerian development is dependent on coordinated gene expression and hormone exposure. The genes that control normal patterning of the reproductive tract are beginning to be identified. The most important hormones regulating mammary gland development are estrogen and progesterone. During pregnancy and lactation, prolactin contributes to lobular differentiation and milk production. Estrogen and progesterone play a fundamental role during puberty to develop a normal adult breast.
Many reproductive and developmental health problems are caused by exposure to chemicals that are widely dispersed in our environment. These problems include infertility, miscarriage, poor pregnancy outcomes, abnormal fetal development, early puberty, endometriosis, and diseases and cancers of reproductive organs. The compelling nature of the collective science has resulted in recognition of a new field of environmental reproductive health. Focusing on exposures to environmental contaminants, particularly during critical periods in development and their potential effects on all aspects of future reproductive life-course, this book provides the first comprehensive source of information bringing together the arguments that are spread out among various scientific disciplines in environmental health, clinical and public health fields. It provides a review of the science in key areas of the relationship between environmental contaminants and reproductive health outcomes, and recommendations on efforts toward prevention in clinical care and public policy.
Epidemiologic studies and animal studies increasingly suggest that exposures to environmental chemicals, nutrition, physical factors, and other factors early in development have a role in susceptibility to disease in later life. The mammalian female reproductive system arises from the uniform paramesonephric duct, the müllerian duct. The major subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) show morphologic features that resemble those of the müllerian duct-derived epithelia of the reproductive tract. Exposure of the developing female reproductive tract to diethylstilbestrol (DES), either in vivo or in organ culture, repressed the expression of HOXA10 in the uterus and resulted in uterine metaplasia. Epigenetic change in the molecular program of cell differentiation in the affected tissues may be a common mechanism. Most regions of the mammalian genome exhibit little variability among individuals in tissue-specific DNA methylation levels. Future analyses of epigenetic imprints of genes explain the developmental origins of disease.
The purpose was to update the Healthy Eating Index-C (HEI-C) with Canada’s new food guide recommendations (HEIC-2009) and compare scores and ratings among a small sample of grade 6 students.
Updates to the HEI-C were completed with Canada’s new food guide recommendations for daily number of servings. HEI-C and HEIC-2009 scores were computed for a small sample (n 405) of grade 6 students utilizing nutrition data that were collected using the Food Behaviour Questionnaire, a validated web-based dietary assessment tool (including a 24 h dietary recall, FFQ, and food and physical activity behavioural questions).
Data were collected in fifteen schools in the Region of Waterloo District School Board, Ontario, Canada.
A total of 405 students (48 % males and 52 % females) from grade 6 classrooms completed the web-based survey.
The index scores revealed that participants scored higher (74·5 v. 69·6, P < 0·001) using the HEIC-2009 compared with the HEI-C, even though both index scores are rated in the ‘needs improvement’ category (HEIC-2009, 75 %; HEI-C, 71 %). A small group of participants (n 14), who were previously rated (using the HEI-C) in the ‘poor’ category, were rated in the ‘needs improvement’ category using the HEIC-2009 (χ2 = 589·647, df = 4, P < 0·001).
The HEIC-2009 has the potential to be used as a population-level diet quality index in Canada.
The purpose of the present paper was to assess dietary energy reporting as a function of sex and weight status among Ontario and Alberta adolescents, using the ratio of energy intake (EI) to estimated BMR (BMRest).
Data were collected using the FBQ, a validated web-based dietary assessment tool (including a 24 h dietary recall, FFQ, and food and physical activity behavioural questions). BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight and participants were classified as normal weight, overweight or obese. BMR was calculated using the WHO equations (based on weight). Reporting status was identified using the ratio EI:BMRest.
Data were collected in public, Catholic and private schools in Ontario and Alberta, Canada.
A total of 1917 (n 876 male and n 1041 female) students (n 934 grade 9 and n 984 grade 10) participated.
The mean EI:BMRest ratio across all participants was 1·4 (sd 0·6), providing evidence of under-reporting for the total sample. Females under-reported more than males (t = 6·27, P < 0·001), and under-reporting increased with increasing weight status for both males (F = 33·21, P < 0·001) and females (F = 14·28, P < 0·001). After removing those who reported eating less to lose weight, the EI:BMRest was 1·56 (sd 0·6) for males and 1·4 (sd 0·6) for females.
The present study highlights methodological challenges associated with self-reported dietary data. Systematic differences in under-reporting of dietary intake by gender and weight status were observed using a web-based survey, similar to observations made using paper-based 24 h recalls and dietitian interviews.
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