To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
White mold caused by the fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a devastating disease of soybean (Glycine max) and other leguminous crops, including dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Previous research has demonstrated that no-till planting soybean into rolled–crimped cereal rye residue can enhance weed management, improve soil health and reduce labor requirements in organic production. However, there are limited data on the effects of cereal rye residue on white mold suppression in no-till planted soybean and dry bean. Two field trials were conducted in 2016–2017 (Year 1) and repeated in 2017–2018 (Year 2) to evaluate the potential of cereal rye cover crop residue to suppress white mold in these crops. In each trial (soybean and dry bean), the experimental design was a randomized complete block with two treatments: (1) rolled–crimped cereal rye residue and (2) no cover crop control. Treatment effects on plant population, biomass and yield components varied between the main crops. Compared with the control treatment, cereal rye residue reduced the incidence of white mold in soybean in both years and in dry bean in Year 2. The reduction in white mold in cereal rye residue plots was due to a combination of (1) decreased sclerotial germination (no stipes formed) and (2) increased nonfunctional sclerotial germination defined here as sclerotia that germinated but produced stipes without the expanded cup where asci containing ascospores are formed. Weed density and biomass were lower in cereal rye residue plots in soybean and dry bean, except in Year 1 in soybean when weed biomass was low in both treatments. Our findings indicate that cereal rye residue could help organic and conventional farmers manage white mold in no-till planted soybean and dry bean. Germination of sclerotia resulting in nonfunctional apothecia could potentially exhaust soilborne inoculum in the upper soil profile and reduce infections in subsequent crops.
We investigated whether neurobehavioral markers of risk for emotion dysregulation were evident among newborns, as well as whether the identified markers were associated with prenatal exposure to maternal emotion dysregulation. Pregnant women (N = 162) reported on their emotion dysregulation prior to a laboratory assessment. The women were then invited to the laboratory to assess baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA in response to an infant cry. Newborns were assessed after birth via the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale. We identified two newborn neurobehavioral factors—arousal and attention—via exploratory factor analysis. Low arousal was characterized by less irritability, excitability, and motor agitation, while low attention was related to a lower threshold for auditory and visual stimulation, less sustained attention, and poorer visual tracking abilities. Pregnant women who reported higher levels of emotion dysregulation had newborns with low arousal levels and less attention. Larger decreases in maternal RSA in response to cry were also related to lower newborn arousal. We provide the first evidence that a woman's emotion dysregulation while pregnant is associated with risks for dysregulation in her newborn. Implications for intergenerational transmission of emotion dysregulation are discussed.
In Scotland, the base of the Ballagan Formation has traditionally been placed at the first grey mudstone within a contiguous Late Devonian to Carboniferous succession. This convention places the Devonian–Carboniferous boundary within the Old Red Sandstone (ORS) Kinnesswood Formation. The consequences of this placement are that tetrapods from the Ballagan Formation were dated as late Tournaisian in age and that the ranges of typically Devonian fish found in the Kinnesswood Formation continued into the Carboniferous. The Pease Bay specimen of the fish Remigolepis is from the Kinnesswood Formation. Comparisons with its range in Greenland, calibrated against spores, show it was Famennian in age. Detailed palynological sampling at Burnmouth from the base of the Ballagan Formation proves that the early Tournaisian spore zones (VI and HD plus Cl 1) are present. The Schopfites species that occurs through most of the succession is Schopfites delicatus rather than Schopfites claviger. The latter species defines the late Tournaisian CM spore zone. The first spore assemblage that has been found in Upper ‘ORS' strata underlying the Ballagan Formation (Preston, Whiteadder Water), contains Retispora lepidophyta and is from the early latest Famennian LL spore zone. The spore samples are interbedded with volcaniclastic debris, which shows that the Kelso Volcanic Formation is, in part, early latest Famennian in age. These findings demonstrate that the Ballagan Formation includes most of the Tournaisian with the Devonian–Carboniferous boundary positioned close to the top of the Kinnesswood Formation. The Stage 6 calcrete at Pease Bay can be correlated to the equivalent section at Carham, showing that it represents a time gap equivalent to the latest Famennian glaciation(s). Importantly, some of the recently described Ballagan Formation tetrapods are older than previously dated and now fill the key early part of Romer's Gap.
Secondary plant compounds have shown bioactivity against multi-drug resistant Haemonchus contortus in small ruminants. This study screened 51 strains of birdsfoot trefoil (BFT, Lotus corniculatus) crude aqueous extracts (BFT-AqE) for anti-parasitic activity in vitro against egg hatching, and of those 51 strains, 13 were selected for further testing of motility of first (L1) and third stage (L3) larvae, and exsheathment of L3. Proanthocyanidin content ranged between 1.4 and 63.8 mg PAC g−1 powder across the 51 BFT strains. When tested against egg hatching, 21 of the 51 aqueous extracts had an EC50 of 1–2 mg powder mL−1, 70% of the strains were >90% efficacious at 6 mg powder mL−1 and 11 of the strains were 100% efficacious at 3 mg powder mL−1 BFT-AqE. Across the 13 strains tested against L3, efficacy ranged from 0 to 75% exsheathment inhibition, and 17 to 92% L3 motility inhibition at a concentration of 25 mg powder mL−1 BFT-AqE. There was no correlation between the PAC content of BFT powders and the anti-parasitic activity of aqueous extracts, therefore other secondary compounds may have contributed to the observed anti-parasitic effects. Further testing of BFT using bioactivity-driven fractionation and screening of BFT populations for the identified anti-parasitic compounds is needed.
We identified a pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium avium in an outpatient bronchoscopy clinic following an increase in clinic procedure volume. We terminated the pseudo-outbreak by increasing the frequency of automated endoscope reprocessors (AER) filter changes from quarterly to monthly. Filter changing schedules should depend on use rather than fixed time intervals.
The lower Mississippian Ballagan Formation of northern Britain is one of only two successions worldwide to yield the earliest known tetrapods with terrestrial capability following the end-Devonian mass extinction event. Studies of the sedimentary environments and habitats in which these beasts lived have been an integral part of a major research project into how, why and under what circumstances this profound step in the evolution of life on Earth occurred. Here, a new palaeogeographic map is constructed from outcrop data integrated with new and archived borehole material. The map shows the extent of a very low-relief coastal wetland developed along the tropical southern continental margin of Laurussia. Coastal floodplains in the Midland Valley and Tweed basins were separated from the marginal marine seaway of the Northumberland–Solway Basin to the south by an archipelago of more elevated areas. A complex mosaic of sedimentary environments was juxtaposed, and included fresh and brackish to saline and hypersaline lakes, a diverse suite of floodplain palaeosols and a persistent fluvial system in the east of the region. The strongly seasonal climate led to the formation of evaporite deposits alternating with flooding events, both meteoric and marine. Storm surges drove marine floods from the SW into both the western Midland Valley and Northumberland–Solway Basin; marine water also flooded into the Tweed Basin and Tayside in the east. The Ballagan Formation is a rare example in the geological record of a tropical, seasonal coastal wetland that contains abundant, small-scale evaporite deposits. The diverse sedimentary environments and palaeosol types indicate a network of different terrestrial and aquatic habitats in which the tetrapods lived.
We compared sepsis “time zero” and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) SEP-1 pass rates among 3 abstractors in 3 hospitals. Abstractors agreed on time zero in 29 of 80 (36%) cases. Perceived pass rates ranged from 9 of 80 cases (11%) to 19 of 80 cases (23%). Variability in time zero and perceived pass rates limits the utility of SEP-1 for measuring quality.
Children with CHD and acquired heart disease have unique, high-risk physiology. They may have a higher risk of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events, as compared with children with non-cardiac disease.
Materials and methods
We sought to evaluate the occurrence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in children with cardiac disease compared to children with non-cardiac disease. A retrospective analysis of tracheal intubations from 38 international paediatric ICUs was performed using the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) quality improvement registry. The primary outcome was the occurrence of any tracheal-intubation-associated event. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events, multiple intubation attempts, and oxygen desaturation.
A total of 8851 intubations were reported between July, 2012 and March, 2016. Cardiac patients were younger, more likely to have haemodynamic instability, and less likely to have respiratory failure as an indication. The overall frequency of tracheal-intubation-associated events was not different (cardiac: 17% versus non-cardiac: 16%, p=0.13), nor was the rate of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events (cardiac: 7% versus non-cardiac: 6%, p=0.11). Tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest occurred more often in cardiac patients (2.80 versus 1.28%; p<0.001), even after adjusting for patient and provider differences (adjusted odds ratio 1.79; p=0.03). Multiple intubation attempts occurred less often in cardiac patients (p=0.04), and oxygen desaturations occurred more often, even after excluding patients with cyanotic heart disease.
The overall incidence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in cardiac patients was not different from that in non-cardiac patients. However, the presence of a cardiac diagnosis was associated with a higher occurrence of both tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest and oxygen desaturation.
Introduction: The level of smoking cessation support across UK prisons is variable, with most offering pharmacological support, such as nicotine replacement therapy. However, with a complete smoking ban in prisons in England now imminent, additional standardised behavioural support is necessary to help offenders go smoke-free.
Aims: This study used the Behaviour Change Wheel to aim to develop the content of an online smoking cessation intervention for offenders, with consideration of their capability, motivation and opportunity for behaviour change.
Methods: This was an intervention development study. The Behaviour Change Wheel was used to map cognitive, behavioural, physiological and social targets for the intervention, onto appropriate intervention techniques for inclusion in the smoking cessation programme for offenders.
Results: Psychological capability, social opportunity and reflective and automatic motivation were identified through deductive thematic analysis as areas of change required to achieve smoking cessation. A total of 27 behavioural change techniques were chosen for this smoking cessation intervention and were mapped onto the Lifestyle Balance Model which provided the theoretical basis on which the components of the programme are conceptualised. This included strategies around increasing motivation to quit, anticipating smoking triggers, modifying smoking-related thoughts, regulating emotions, managing cravings, replacing smoking and rewarding nicotine abstinence and adopting a healthier lifestyle.
Conclusions: Through the utilisation of the Behaviour Change Wheel, the development process of this digital smoking cessation intervention was achieved. Further research is planned to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of this intervention and to explore how the programme is implemented in practice within prison settings.
Objectives: Validated treatments for adults with bulimia nervosa (BN) and related presentations are scarce, and the current most evidenced treatment — cognitive behaviour therapy for eating disorders — is resource intensive and has suboptimal remission rates; there is, therefore, a need to evaluate the effectiveness of other approaches for treating such conditions in routine NHS services. Design: Data from nine patients in an NHS eating disorder service who received compassion-focused therapy (CFT) for BN or bulimic presentations were analysed retrospectively. Methods: Patients routinely completed a validated scale of eating disorder severity (the EDE-Q) at baseline and end of treatment. Results: All five scales of the EDE-Q showed a mean significant reduction (N = 9), indicating a significant reduction in eating disorder symptomatology, and individual analyses showed clinically reliable reduction in seven out of nine patients’ EDE-Q scores. Conclusions: This is the first article to report a case series of patients who benefitted significantly from receiving CFT for their eating disorder. Limitations of this study are considered along with future directions for research into effective treatments for eating disorders.
White dwarfs are becoming useful tools for many areas of astronomy. They can be used as accurate chronometers over Gyr timescales. They are also clues to the history of star formation in our galaxy. Many of these studies require accurate estimates of the mass of the white dwarf. The theoretical mass-radius relation is often invoked to provide these mass estimates. While the theoretical mass-radius relation is well developed, observational tests of this relation show a much larger scatter in the results than expected. High precision observational tests to confirm this relation are required. Gaia is providing distance measurements which will remove one of the main source of uncertainty affecting most previous observations. We combine Gaia distances with spectra from the Hubble and FUSE satelites to make precise tests of the white dwarf mass-radius relation.
Electroconvulsive therapy prescribers, practitioners and many patients will be aware of an emerging clinical evidence base for non-ECT brain stimulation treatments. Although the previous edition of The ECT Handbook made no mention of brain stimulation treatments, a review of the status of the three most studied therapies is now relevant. These therapies are:
• repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
• vagus nerve stimulation
• deep brain stimulation.
In this chapter, we consider the use of these therapies in the management of depression and how they might relate to the ECT treatment pathway.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is a non-invasive technique causing modification of brain activity by focal stimulation of the superficial layers of the cerebral cortex using a train of magnetic pulses via an external wire coil. The impetus for studies of rTMS in psychiatry has arisen from the need for a viable alternative to ECT with a lower burden of adverse effects and greater patient acceptability. A substantial literature, including several systematic reviews and meta-analyses, now exists on the use of rTMS in the management of depression. In 2008 the US Food and Drug Administration approved a TMS system ‘for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder in adult patients who have failed to achieve satisfactory improvement from one prior antidepressant medication at or above the minimal effective dose and duration in the current episode’.
However, NICE published a technology appraisal in 2007, restating the core recommendations in the 2010 depression guideline update, which is consistent with the absence of convincing evidence of superior efficacy for rTMS over sham treatment and with the paucity of efficacy data extending beyond 4–6 weeks of treatment. The status of the technique is summarised as follows:
‘Current evidence suggests that there are no major safety concerns associated with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for severe depression. There is uncertainty about the procedure's clinical efficacy, which may depend on higher intensity, greater frequency, bilateral application and/or longer treatment durations than have appeared in the evidence to date. TMS should therefore be performed only in research studies designed to investigate these factors.’ (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2007)
In our opinion, on the basis of current evidence, rTMS remains an interesting but experimental therapy which should not be considered a viable alternative to treatment with ECT.