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Psychological symptoms that arise in early childhood can follow a multitude of patterns into adolescence, including homotypic continuity (i.e., similar symptoms over time) and heterotypic continuity (i.e., a shift in symptoms over time). However, we know very little about the factors that distinguish homotypic vs. heterotypic continuity of early internalizing and externalizing symptoms over development. In a separate line of research, diurnal cortisol has been shown to predict later internalizing and externalizing problems. In the current study, we tested whether diurnal cortisol patterns moderated the course of internalizing and externalizing symptoms from preschool to early adolescence. 554 children (54% male) and parents participated in a longitudinal study. Parents reported on their children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms at ages 3 and 12, and children collected diurnal saliva samples at age 9. Results showed that a steeper cortisol decline at age 9 combined with high internalizing or externalizing problems at age 3 predicted higher internalizing problems at age 12. A more blunted cortisol decline combined with early internalizing or externalizing problems predicted higher externalizing problems in early adolescence. These results illustrate the moderating role of stress system functioning in homotypic and heterotypic patterns of psychopathology from preschool to early adolescence.
Whether leading a small team or a multinational corporation, within the public or private sector, a thorough understanding of the theory and best practice of leadership is essential. Leadership: Regional and Global Perspectives provides a fresh approach to leading in contemporary business environments. The theory component is complemented by a focus on strategic application. Each chapter features case studies highlighting the practical application of key concepts by organisational leaders in the Australasian region. Case studies at the end of each chapter provide a more nuanced analysis of the theory, while accompanying questions encourage students to think critically. Learning is further supported through the inclusion of learning objectives, key terms, further readings and review questions. An extensive bank of web resources is available to lecturers to support their teaching. Written by an expert team of academics from across Australia, Leadership gives students the tools they need to navigate their leadership journey.