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Dopaminergic imaging is an established biomarker for dementia with Lewy bodies, but its diagnostic accuracy at the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage remains uncertain.
To provide robust prospective evidence of the diagnostic accuracy of dopaminergic imaging at the MCI stage to either support or refute its inclusion as a biomarker for the diagnosis of MCI with Lewy bodies.
We conducted a prospective diagnostic accuracy study of baseline dopaminergic imaging with [123I]N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane single-photon emission computerised tomography (123I-FP-CIT SPECT) in 144 patients with MCI. Images were rated as normal or abnormal by a panel of experts with access to striatal binding ratio results. Follow-up consensus diagnosis based on the presence of core features of Lewy body disease was used as the reference standard.
At latest assessment (mean 2 years) 61 patients had probable MCI with Lewy bodies, 26 possible MCI with Lewy bodies and 57 MCI due to Alzheimer's disease. The sensitivity of baseline FP-CIT visual rating for probable MCI with Lewy bodies was 66% (95% CI 52–77%), specificity 88% (76–95%) and accuracy 76% (68–84%), with positive likelihood ratio 5.3.
It is over five times as likely for an abnormal scan to be found in probable MCI with Lewy bodies than MCI due to Alzheimer's disease. Dopaminergic imaging appears to be useful at the MCI stage in cases where Lewy body disease is suspected clinically.
The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) is predicated on the assumption that psychiatric symptoms are manifestations of disease. Biopsychosocial theories suggest behavioural changes viewed as psychiatric may also arise as a result of external behavioural triggers. Knowing the causes of psychiatric symptoms is important since the treatment and management of symptoms relies on this understanding.
This study sought to understand the causes of psychiatric symptoms recorded in care home settings by investigating qualitatively described symptoms in Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home (NPI-NH) interviews.
The current study examined the NPI-NH interviews of 725 participants across 50 care homes. The qualitatively described symptoms from each of the 12 subscales of the NPI were extracted: 347 interviews included at least one qualitatively described symptom (n = 651 descriptions). A biopsychosocial algorithm developed following a process of independent researcher coding (n = 3) was applied to the symptom descriptions. This determined whether the description had predominantly psychiatric features, or features that were cognitive or attributable to other causes (i.e. issues with orientation and memory; expressions of need; poor care and communication; or understandable reactions)
Our findings suggest that the majority (over 80%) of descriptions described symptoms with features that could be attributable to cognitive changes and external triggers (such as poor care and communication).
The finding suggest that in its current form the NPI-NH may over attribute the incidence of psychiatric symptoms in care homes by overlooking triggers for behavioural changes. Measures of psychiatric symptoms should determine the causes of behavioural changes in order to guide treatments more effectively.
To explore influences on adolescent diet and physical activity, from the perspectives of adolescents and their caregivers, in Jimma, Ethiopia.
Qualitative design, using focus group discussions (FGD).
A low-income setting in Jimma, Ethiopia.
Five FGD with adolescents aged 10–12 years and 15–17 years (n 41) and three FGD with parents (n 22) were conducted.
Adolescents displayed a holistic understanding of health comprising physical, social and psychological well-being. Social and cultural factors were perceived to be the main drivers of adolescent diet and physical activity. All participants indicated that caregivers dictated adolescents’ diet, as families shared food from the same plate. Meals were primarily determined by caregivers, whose choices were driven by food affordability and accessibility. Older adolescents, particularly boys, had opportunities to make independent food choices outside of the home which were driven by taste and appearance, rather than nutritional value. Many felt that adolescent physical activity was heavily influenced by gender. Girls’ activities included domestic work and family responsibilities, whereas boys had more free time to participate in outdoor games. Girls’ safety was reported to be a concern to caregivers, who were fearful of permitting their daughters to share overcrowded outdoor spaces with strangers.
Adolescents and caregivers spoke a range of social, economic and cultural influences on adolescent diet and physical activity. Adolescents, parents and the wider community need to be involved in the development and delivery of effective interventions that will take into consideration these social, economic and cultural factors.
There is limited evidence on the relationship between disability, experiences of gender-based violence (GBV), and mental health among refugee women in humanitarian contexts.
A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of baseline data (n = 209) collected from women enrolled in a cohort study of refugee women accessing GBV response services in the Dadaab refugee camps in Kenya. Women were surveyed about GBV experiences (past 12 months, before the last 12 months, before arriving in the refugee camps), functional disability status, and mental health (anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress), and we explored the inter-relationship of these factors.
Among women accessing GBV response services, 44% reported a disability. A higher proportion of women with a disability (69%) reported a past-year experience of physical intimate partner violence and/or physical or sexual non-partner violence, compared to women without a disability (54%). A higher proportion of women with a disability (32%) experienced non-partner physical or sexual violence before arriving in the camp compared to women without a disability (16%). Disability was associated with higher scores for depression (1.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54–3.33), PTSD (2.26, 95% CI 0.03–4.49), and anxiety (1.54, 95% CI 0.13–2.95) after adjusting for age, length of encampment, partner status, number of children, and GBV indicators.
A large proportion of refugee women seeking GBV response services have disabilities, and refugee women with a disability are at high risk of poor mental health. This research highlights the need for mental health and disability screening within GBV response programming.
Whether leading a small team or a multinational corporation, within the public or private sector, a thorough understanding of the theory and best practice of leadership is essential. Leadership: Regional and Global Perspectives provides a fresh approach to leading in contemporary business environments. The theory component is complemented by a focus on strategic application. Each chapter features case studies highlighting the practical application of key concepts by organisational leaders in the Australasian region. Case studies at the end of each chapter provide a more nuanced analysis of the theory, while accompanying questions encourage students to think critically. Learning is further supported through the inclusion of learning objectives, key terms, further readings and review questions. An extensive bank of web resources is available to lecturers to support their teaching. Written by an expert team of academics from across Australia, Leadership gives students the tools they need to navigate their leadership journey.