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To determine the prevalence and risk factors for bloodborne exposure and infection in correctional healthcare workers (CHCWs).
Cross-sectional risk assessment study with a confidential questionnaire and serological testing performed during 1999-2000.
Correctional systems in 3 states.
Among 310 participating CHCWs, the rate of percutaneous injury (PI) was 32 Pis per 100 person-years overall and 42 Pis per 100 person-years for CHCWs with clinical job duties. Underreporting was common, with only 25 (49%) of 51 Pis formally reported to the administration. Independent risk factors for experiencing PI included being age 45 or older (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.41 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.31-4.46]) and having job duties that involved needle contact (aOR, 3.70 [95% CI, 1.28-10.63]) or blood contact (aOR, 5.05 [95% CI, 1.45-17.54]). Overall, 222 CHCWs (72%) reported having received a primary hepatitis В vaccination series; of these, 150 (68%) tested positive for anti-hepatitis B surface antigen, with negative results significantly associated with receipt of last dose more than 5 years previously. Serologic markers of hepatitis В virus infection were identified in 31 individuals (10%), and the prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection was 2% (n = 7). The high hepatitis B vaccination rate limited the ability to identify risk factors for infection, but hepatitis C virus infection correlated with community risk factors only.
Although the wide coverage with hepatitis B vaccination and the decreasing rate of hepatitis C virus infection in the general population are encouraging, the high rate of exposure in CHCWs and the lack of exposure documentation are concerns. Continued efforts to develop interventions to reduce exposures and encourage reporting should be implemented and evaluated in correctional healthcare settings. These interventions should address infection control barriers unique to the correctional setting.
To assess the impact of a needleless intravenous (IV) connection system on the rate of reported intravenous-connection–related (IVCR) percutaneous injuries, and to assess user satisfaction, frequency of use, and barriers to use.
A pre-post inter vention design, with injury incidence rates being compared 3 years before and 1 year after hospitalwide device implementation; and a cross-sectional descriptive user satisfaction survey.
Two tertiar y-care teaching hospitals, one general and one pediatric, located in a large metropolitan medical center.
All IVCR percutaneous injuries reported to the employee health ser vices at both hospitals during the years from 1989 to 1991 and 1993.
Survey participants were selected randomly from licensed nursing employees at both hospitals.
IV connection system consisting of blunt plastic cannulas and compressed latex injection sites.
After device implementation, the IVCR injury rate was reduced 62.4% (rate ratio [RR], 0.38; 95% confidence inter val [CI95], 0.27-0.53) at the general hospital and 70.2% (RR, 0.30; CI95, 0.17-0.53) at the pediatric hospital. After adjusting for the reduction in injury rate due to factors other than device implementation, the IVCR injury rate was reduced 54.5% (adjusted RR, 0.46; CI95, 0.32-0.65) at the general hospital and 57.2% (adjusted RR, 0.43; CI95, 0.24-0.78) at the pediatric hospital. Approximately 94% of survey respondents (n=478, response rate=51%) were satisfied with the device and recommended continued use. However, needles still were being used for activities that could have been performed with the needleless system because of compatibility, accessibility, and other technical problems related to the device.
The device was effective in reducing the rate of reported IVCR percutaneous injuries and users were satisfied with the device, but barriers to universal use were identified.
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