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Childhood self-control has been linked with better health, criminal justice, and economic outcomes in adulthood in predominately white cohorts outside of the United States. We investigated whether self-control in first grade predicted success in the transition to adulthood in a longitudinal cohort of first graders who participated in a universal intervention trial to prevent poor achievement and reduce aggression in Baltimore schools. We also explored whether the intervention moderated the relationship between self-control and young adult outcomes. Teachers rated self-control using the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Revised. Study outcomes were on-time high school graduation, college participation, teen pregnancy, substance use disorder, criminal justice system involvement, and incarceration (ages 19–26). Latent profile analysis was used to identify classes of childhood self-control. A high self-control class (n = 279, 48.1%), inattentive class (n = 201, 35.3%), and inattentive/hyperactive class (n = 90, 16.6%) were identified. Children with better self-control were more likely to graduate on time and attend college; no significant class differences were found for teen pregnancy, substance use disorder, criminal justice system involvement, or incarceration. A classroom-based intervention reduced criminal justice system involvement and substance use disorder among children with high self-control. Early interventions to promote child self-control may have long-term individual and social benefits.
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggest that behaviour change interventions have modest effect sizes, struggle to demonstrate effect in the long term and that there is high heterogeneity between studies. Such interventions take huge effort to design and run for relatively small returns in terms of changes to behaviour.
So why do behaviour change interventions not work and how can we make them more effective? This article offers some ideas about what may underpin the failure of behaviour change interventions. We propose three main reasons that may explain why our current methods of conducting behaviour change interventions struggle to achieve the changes we expect: 1) our current model for testing the efficacy or effectiveness of interventions tends to a mean effect size. This ignores individual differences in response to interventions; 2) our interventions tend to assume that everyone values health in the way we do as health professionals; and 3) the great majority of our interventions focus on addressing cognitions as mechanisms of change. We appeal to people’s logic and rationality rather than recognising that much of what we do and how we behave, including our health behaviours, is governed as much by how we feel and how engaged we are emotionally as it is with what we plan and intend to do.
Drawing on our team’s experience of developing multiple interventions to promote and support health behaviour change with a variety of populations in different global contexts, this article explores strategies with potential to address these issues.
Workers across the globe have evolved in their patterns of work, with increased flexibility emerging as a central theme. We highlight three forms of flexibility that workers have increasingly demanded: flexibility in location, schedule, and work design. We argue these capture the broad ways in which workers seek to structure and balance their work and nonwork lives, as well as their careers overall. We describe the evolution of each form of flexibility, review the benefits and challenges, and outline avenues for future research. Finally, we highlight a unique work arrangement, or setting, that infuses flexibility in unique ways – coworking spaces. We review what we know so far about coworking spaces, which have proliferated far faster than the scientific research that seeks to understand them. We conclude by outlining questions that may be good first priorities for emerging scholarly research in this area.
The 2017 solar eclipse was associated with mass gatherings in many of the 14 states along the path of totality. The Kentucky Department for Public Health implemented an enhanced syndromic surveillance system to detect increases in emergency department (ED) visits and other health care needs near Hopkinsville, Kentucky, where the point of greatest eclipse occurred.
EDs flagged visits of patients who participated in eclipse events from August 17–22. Data from 14 area emergency medical services and 26 first-aid stations were also monitored to detect health-related events occurring during the eclipse period.
Forty-four potential eclipse event-related visits were identified, primarily injuries, gastrointestinal illness, and heat-related illness. First-aid stations and emergency medical services commonly attended to patients with pain and heat-related illness.
Kentucky’s experience during the eclipse demonstrated the value of patient visit flagging to describe the disease burden during a mass gathering and to investigate epidemiological links between cases. A close collaboration between public health authorities within and across jurisdictions, health information exchanges, hospitals, and other first-response care providers will optimize health surveillance activities before, during, and after mass gatherings.
Pacific Island countries are experiencing a high burden of diet-related non-communicable diseases; and consumption of fat, sugar and salt are important modifiable risk factors contributing to this. The present study systematically reviewed and summarized available literature on dietary intakes of fat, sugar and salt in the Pacific Islands.
Electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect and GlobalHealth) were searched from 2005 to January 2018. Grey literature was also searched and key stakeholders were consulted for additional information. Study eligibility was assessed by two authors and quality was evaluated using a modified tool for assessing dietary intake studies.
Thirty-one studies were included, twenty-two contained information on fat, seventeen on sugar and fourteen on salt. Dietary assessment methods varied widely and six different outcome measures for fat, sugar and salt intake – absolute intake, household expenditure, percentage contribution to energy intake, sources, availability and dietary behaviours – were used. Absolute intake of fat ranged from 25·4 g/d in Solomon Islands to 98·9 g/d in Guam, while salt intake ranged from 5·6 g/d in Kiribati to 10·3 g/d in Fiji. Only Guam reported on absolute sugar intake (47·3 g/d). Peer-reviewed research studies used higher-quality dietary assessment methods, while reports from national surveys had better participation rates but mostly utilized indirect methods to quantify intake.
Despite the established and growing crisis of diet-related diseases in the Pacific, there is inadequate evidence about what Pacific Islanders are eating. Pacific Island countries need nutrition monitoring systems to fully understand the changing diets of Pacific Islanders and inform effective policy interventions.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal trajectory of self- and informant-subjective cognitive complaints (SCC), and to determine if SCC predict longitudinal changes in objective measures (OM) of cognitive function. Methods: The study included healthy and cognitively normal late middle-aged adults enriched with a family history of AD who were evaluated at up to three visits over a 4-year period. At each visit (Visit 1–3), self- and informant-SCC and OM were evaluated. Linear mixed models were used to determine if the longitudinal rate of change of self- and informant-SCC were associated with demographic variables, depressive symptoms, family history (FH), and apolipoprotein epsilon 4 (APOE4) status. The same modeling approach was used to examine the effect of Visit 1 SCC on longitudinal cognitive change after controlling for the same variables. Results: At Visit 1, more self-SCC were associated with fewer years of education and more depressive symptoms. SCC were also associated with poorer performance on cognitive measures, such that more self-SCC at Visit 1 were associated with poorer performance on memory and executive functioning measures at Visit 1, while more informant-SCC were associated with faster rate of longitudinal decline on a measure of episodic learning and memory. FH and APOE4 status were not associated with SCC. Discussion: Self- and informant-SCC showed an association with OM, albeit over different time frames in our late middle-aged sample. Additional longitudinal follow-up will likely assist in further clarifying these relationships as our sample ages and more pronounced cognitive changes eventually emerge. (JINS, 2017, 23, 617–626)
Invasive nonnative grasses pose a significant threat to rangelands of the Northern Great Plains. Long-term data from a grazing experiment near Mandan, ND (46°46′11.43″N, 100°54′55.16″W) revealed the invasion of native prairie by Kentucky bluegrass, an exotic grass. We hypothesized that bluegrass invasion altered soil 13C and 15N levels, tracking the increased abundance of invasive cool-season grass aboveground. In 2014, soil samples were collected to depths of 0 to 7.6 cm and 7.6 to 15.2 cm in pastures grazed similarly since 1916. Samples were analyzed for total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) and 13C and 15N isotopes and compared against archived samples from 1991. Vegetation change from native to exotic grasses changed the isotopic composition of soil C. The soil δ13C at the 0- to 7.6-cm depth became more negative between 1991 and 2014. Soil δ13C became less negative with increasing stocking rate at both soil depths. Soil δ15N values at the 0- to 7.6-cm depth decreased between 1991 and 2014. Soil δ15N increased with increasing stocking rate at the 0- to 7.6-cm depth in 2014. Soil C and N concentrations at 0 to 7.6 cm increased by 35% (12 g C kg−1) and 27% (0.9 g N kg−1), respectively, from 1991 to 2014; however, concentrations at the 7.6- to 15.2-cm depth did not change. The shift from native C4 to invasive C3 grass did not reduce soil C storage in the long-term prairie pastures. The more deleterious effect of invasion, however, may have been the buildup of dead biomass, which alters vegetation structure and may reduce native species’ diversity and abundance.
Objectives: Intraindividual cognitive variability (IICV) has been shown to differentiate between groups with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia. This study examined whether baseline IICV predicted subsequent mild to moderate cognitive impairment in a cognitively normal baseline sample. Methods: Participants with 4 waves of cognitive assessment were drawn from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention (WRAP; n=684; 53.6(6.6) baseline age; 9.1(1.0) years follow-up; 70% female; 74.6% parental history of Alzheimer’s disease). The primary outcome was Wave 4 cognitive status (“cognitively normal” vs. “impaired”) determined by consensus conference; “impaired” included early MCI (n=109), clinical MCI (n=11), or dementia (n=1). Primary predictors included two IICV variables, each based on the standard deviation of a set of scores: “6 Factor IICV” and “4 Test IICV”. Each IICV variable was tested in a series of logistic regression models to determine whether IICV predicted cognitive status. In exploratory analyses, distribution-based cutoffs incorporating memory, executive function, and IICV patterns were used to create and test an MCI risk variable. Results: Results were similar for the IICV variables: higher IICV was associated with greater risk of subsequent impairment after covariate adjustment. After adjusting for memory and executive functioning scores contributing to IICV, IICV was not significant. The MCI risk variable also predicted risk of impairment. Conclusions: While IICV in middle-age predicts subsequent impairment, it is a weaker risk indicator than the memory and executive function scores contributing to its calculation. Exploratory analyses suggest potential to incorporate IICV patterns into risk assessment in clinical settings. (JINS, 2016, 22, 1016–1025)
This review article provides a reading guide to scholarly literature published in English about Nepal's political transformation since 2006, when Nepal's decade-long civil conflict between Maoist and state forces formally ended. The article is structured around four major themes: (1) the Maoist insurgency or ‘People's War’; (2) state formation and transformation; (3) identity politics; and (4) territorial and ecological consciousness. We also address the dynamics of migration and mobility in relation to all of these themes. Ultimately, we consider the Maoist movement as one element in a much broader process of transformation, which with the benefit of hindsight we can situate in relation to several other contemporaneous trajectories, including: democratization, identity-based mobilization, constitutional nationalism, international intervention, territorial restructuring, migration and the remittance economy, and the emergence of ecological and other new forms of consciousness. By looking across the disciplines at scholarship published on all of these themes, we aim to connect the dots between long-standing disciplinary traditions of scholarship on Nepal and more recent approaches to understanding the country's transformation.
Alan Sorrell is best known today as a ‘reconstruction artist’, employed between the 1930s and the 1970s by the Ministry of Works and other bodies to produce reconstructions of ancient monuments and re-creations of ancient life. The archive containing many of his papers, working drawings, correspondence and other material was temporarily loaned to the Society of Antiquaries of London for study in 2010–11, and is now publicly accessible via the Sorrell family. This paper reports on initial research into the Sorrell archive and other documentary sources, funded through a British Academy Small Grant. We discuss how the archive throws new light not just on Sorrell's career and achievements, but on the intellectual and professional development of archaeology as a whole in the mid-twentieth century.
The very high fraction of C-enriched stars among the low end of the Galactic-halo metallicity distribution, along with the wide variety in content of their neutron-capture elements, make the understanding of their formation scenario(s) of extreme interest. The combination of accurate determinations of their chemical composition with long-term radial-velocity monitoring is crucial to address this issue. We discuss the first results of long-term radial-velocity monitoring for C-enhanced, metal-poor stars and explore the connection with chemical peculiarities; the data suggest that belonging to a close binary affects nucleosynthesis on the Asymptotic Giant Branch. We also present abundances for the poorly studied element fluorine in a sample of 10 C-enhanced stars with metallicities ranging from [Fe/H] = –1.3 to –2.9 and compare our measurements to the predictions of state-of-the-art nucleosynthesis models. We show how the observed abundances of fluorine in CEMP stars are considerable lower than expected on the basis of the current state-of-the-art theoretical calculations, hinting at our poor understanding of the nucleosynthetic processes that produce this element.
Modern energy systems have been central to the development of human societies. They have perhaps been the single most important determinant of growth of our industrial societies and our modern economy. Unfortunately, they have also been a key driver of many of the negative environmental trends observed in the world today. For example, current energy systems are the predominant source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, accounting for 84% of total global CO2 emissions and 64% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to human activities. Past trends suggest that this percentage is likely to increase in the future if our energy needs continue to be met by fossil fuels.
The impact of GHG emissions on climate is arguably the most significant environmental impact associated with our energy systems, as the effects of such emissions are felt globally. However, these effects will not necessarily be equitable. Due to the realities of global and national economics, the areas that may suffer the greatest impacts from climate change may be those that have to date contributed the least in terms of GHG emissions. Our fossil fuel-based energy systems also emit substantial quantities of other atmospheric pollutants, for example sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), primary particulate matter (PM), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), which degrade air quality and cause damage to health and ecosystems through processes such as acidifi cation, eutrophication, and the formation of ground-level ozone (O3) and secondary PM. Biomass-based energy systems can also have substantial impacts on land and water resources.
The Working Group on Historical Instruments (WG-HI) was founded by the members of Commission 41 at the 2000 Manchester IAU General Assembly with two main objectives: to assemble a bibliography of existing publications relating to historical instruments, and to encourage colleagues to carry out research and publish their results. Since then the concerns of the Working Group have expanded to include efforts to preserve and protect old astronomical instruments, observatories, and related sites as world cultural heritage and material evidence of the development of astronomy in different parts of the globe.
The influence of annealing time and annealing temperature under controlled partial pressure of selenium on the in-plane electrical transport properties of specimens of [(PbSe)0.99]1[WSe2]1 turbostratic nanolaminates was studied. The annealing treatments were found to be very effective in reducing carrier concentrations and improving carrier mobility in the annealed films, which is attributed to the reduction of compositional and structural defects. As a result, room temperature Hall mobilities greater than 60 cm2 V−1·s−1 are observed in spite of the small in-plane domain sizes (on the order of 10 nm) that are related to the turbostratic disorder. The technique appears promising for decreasing the concentration of kinetically trapped defects in these and related self-assembled nanostructures, a key challenge to evaluating the expected potential for controlling electrical and thermal transport properties via designed nanostructure in these and related materials.
In an interview for Oxford Poetryin 1983, Anne Stevenson explores the role of the personal pronoun in her work, explaining that ‘the “I” I write as is not really the “I” I know, or other people know. It's not exactly a persona, this “I” in the poems. It's more a reflection in a mirror.’ Her claim that she does not know, and others do not recognise, this reflected version of herself, coupled with her assertion that it does not refer to a fictional ‘persona’ either, is intriguing. This foreign mirror image is halfway between an autonomous figure, without personal accountability, and an autobiographical projection of the poet's own self. That Stevenson's poetry is, as Sean O'Brien notes, ‘inseparable from life’ is certainly evident in the numbers of dates and place names included in the titles and texts of her poems, while an early essay, ‘Writing as a Woman’ (1979), discusses for instance how the personal experiences of raising a family and coping with domesticity found their way into the poet's early work.
In a later interview, she again uses the act of looking at her reflection to suggest a relationship between self and other, the known and the unknown. It was like, she suggests, ‘the surrealistic effect you get when looking through a window at night. You can see through the glass to the trees or buildings outside; at the same time you also see your face, or really, through your face.’ This appears to challenge the apparent rupture between herself and the mirror image in the previous quotation. She now recognises herself in the glass, while also looking through herself to the world beyond. ‘You’ has the capacity to represent a presence that is both opaque and transparent, there and not there. Such pronouns, therefore, create their own drama in poems that draw on life's experiences. While they do not initially attract attention to themselves, the tensions they create often lie at the heart of Stevenson's poetic purpose.
In an interview for Oxford Poetry in 1983, Anne Stevenson explores the role of the personal pronoun in her work, explaining that ‘the “I” I write as is not really the “I” I know, or other people know. It's not exactly a persona, this “I” in the poems. It's more a reflection in a mirror.’ Her claim that she does not know, and others do not recognise, this reflected version of herself, coupled with her assertion that it does not refer to a fictional ‘persona’ either, is intriguing. This foreign mirror image is halfway between an autonomous figure, without personal accountability, and an autobiographical projection of the poet's own self. That Stevenson's poetry is, as Sean O'Brien notes, ‘inseparable from life’ is certainly evident in the numbers of dates and place names included in the titles and texts of her poems, while an early essay, ‘Writing as a Woman’ (1979), discusses for instance how the personal experiences of raising a family and coping with domesticity found their way into the poet's early work.
In a later interview, she again uses the act of looking at her reflection to suggest a relationship between self and other, the known and the unknown. It was like, she suggests, ‘the surrealistic effect you get when looking through a window at night. You can see through the glass to the trees or buildings outside; at the same time you also see your face, or really, through your face.’ This appears to challenge the apparent rupture between herself and the mirror image in the previous quotation. She now recognises herself in the glass, while also looking through herself to the world beyond. ‘You’ has the capacity to represent a presence that is both opaque and transparent, there and not there. Such pronouns, therefore, create their own drama in poems that draw on life’s experiences. While they do not initially attract attention to themselves, the tensions they create often lie at the heart of Stevenson’s poetic purpose.
On 14 December 2007, on what would have been VèVè A. Clark's sixty-third birthday, hundreds of people gathered for her memorial service at UC Berkeley. In the week leading up to the celebration, people from all over the country, including friends, family, colleagues, and students, contributed memories celebrating her life. Poems and testimonies chronicled emotions ranging from triumphant to despairing, yet all affirmed the ase, or energy, she so graciously shared with those around her. As I recall the whirl of activities, one particular element of preparing the program stands out: the accents on proper names and the musical and dance selections had to be properly placed. Drafts were edited, printed, and corrected in order to ensure accuracy. In an Anglophone context, this preoccupation may seem trivial. Yet as her colleagues and former students, we knew that Clark's insistence upon precision was critical to her entire scholarly enterprise; the visual effect of a bodily gesture in a staged or ritual context or the pinpointing of the exact timing of a historical event had tremendous meaning and importance to her. Her precision was a formative aspect of her conceptualization of diaspora literacy, a hallmark of a research methodology and teaching pedagogy grounded in multilingualism, historical contextualization, and respect for the specificity of other cultures. This attention to detail endowed her work as an interdisciplinary scholar of the literature and performance traditions of the African diaspora in the Americas with nuance and complexity.
The Historical Instruments Working Group (WG-HI) and Commission 41 started planning an interdisciplinary conference titled Astronomy and its instruments before and after Galileo since January 2007. This conference, as an IYA2009 initiative, aims “to highlight mankind's path toward an improved knowledge of the sky using mathematical and mechanical tools as well as monuments and buildings, giving rise, in doing so, to scientific astronomy”. Commission 46 and Commission 55 also support this conference, to be held on the Isle of San Servolo, Venice (Italy), 27 September – 3 October 2009. As a fact of history, it was in Venice that Galileo was advised and got material (glass) to make his telescope, and in Venice he presented an working instrument to Venetian Doge in August 1609. The conference is co-sponsored by IAU as a Joint Symposium with the INAF – Astronomical Observatory of Padova, Italy.
We present equivalent width measurements and limits of six diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs, λ 4428, λ 5705, λ 5780, λ 5797, λ 6284, and λ 6613) in seven damped Lyα absorbers (DLAs) over the redshift range 0.091 ≤ z ≤ 0.524, sampling 20.3 ≤ log N(Hi) ≤ 21.7. Based upon the Galactic DIB–N(H i) relation, the λ 6284 DIB equivalent width upper limits in four of the seven DLAs are a factor of 4–10 times below the λ 6284 DIB equivalent widths observed in the Galaxy, but are not inconsistent with those present in the Magellanic Clouds. Assuming the Galactic DIB–E(B − V) relation, we determine reddening upper limits for the DLAs in our sample. Based upon the E(B − V) limits, the gas-to-dust ratios, N(H i)/E(B − V), of the four aforementioned DLAs are at least ~5 times higher than that of the Galactic ISM and are more consistent with the Large Magellanic Cloud. The ratios of two other DLAs are at least a factor of a few times higher. The best constraints on reddening derive from the upper limits for the λ 5780 and λ 6284 DIBs, which yield E(B − V) ≤ 0.08 mag for four of the seven DLAs and are more consistent with the Magellanic Clouds rather than the Galaxy. Our results suggest that, in DLAs, quantities related to dust, such as reddening and metallicity, appear to have a greater impact on DIB strengths than does H i gas abundance. The molecules responsible for the DIBs in DLA selected sightlines are underabundant relative to sightlines in the Galaxy of similarly high N(H i). Using DIBs to study the ISM of DLAs provide evidence that at least some population of DLAs are more Magellanic-like than Galactic-like.