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This is the first study to report on the impact of race on differences in the prevalence of echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy and left ventricular adaptation at the time of diagnosis of essential hypertension in children.
This cross-sectional, single-centre study included patients aged 3–18 years who had newly diagnosed essential hypertension. Echocardiography was used to assess left ventricular mass index and left ventricular relative wall thickness. An left ventricular mass index > the 95th percentile for age and gender, and an left ventricular relative wall thickness > 0.42, were used to diagnose left ventricular hypertrophy and concentric adaptation. Various echocardiographic parameters were compared between African Americans and Caucasians.
The study included 422 patients (289 African Americans and 133 Caucasians) diagnosed with essential hypertension at a median age of 14.6 (interquartile range; 12.1–16.3) years. Eighty-eight patients (20.9%) had left ventricular hypertrophy. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy between African Americans and Caucasians (22.5% versus 17.3%, p=0.22). The median left ventricular relative wall thickness was 0.35 (0.29–0.43), and 114 patients (27.0%) had an left ventricular relative wall thickness > 0.42. The presence of an left ventricular relative wall thickness > 0.42 was significantly higher among African Americans compared to Caucasians (30.1% versus 20.3%, p = 0.04). The African American race was a strong predictor for an left ventricular relative wall thickness > 0.42 (odds ratio 1.7, p = 0.04), but not for left ventricular mass index > the 95th percentile (p = 0.22). Overweight/obesity was a strong predictor for an left ventricular mass index > the 95th percentile.
There was no difference in the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in children with essential hypertension of different races. Obesity, rather than being African American, is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy.
Double-orifice mitral valve or left atrioventricular valve is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly that may be associated with an atrioventricular septal defect. The surgical management of double-orifice mitral valve/double-orifice left atrioventricular valve with atrioventricular septal defect is highly challenging with acceptable clinical outcomes. This meta-analysis is aimed to evaluate the surgical outcomes of double-orifice mitral valve/double-orifice left atrioventricular valve repair in patients with atrioventricular septal defect.
Methods and results:
A total of eight studies were retrieved from the literature by searching through PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Using Bayesian hierarchical models, we estimated the pooled proportion of incidence of double-orifice mitral valve/double-orifice left atrioventricular valve with atrioventricular septal defect as 4.88% in patients who underwent surgical repair (7 studies; 3295 patients; 95% credible interval [CI] 4.2–5.7%). As compared to pre-operative regurgitation, the pooled proportions of post-operative regurgitation were significantly low in patients with moderate status: 5.1 versus 26.39% and severe status: 5.7 versus 29.38% [8 studies; 171 patients]. Moreover, the heterogeneity test revealed consistency in the data (p < 0.05). Lastly, the pooled estimated proportions of early and late mortality following surgical interventions were low, that is, 5 and 7.4%, respectively.
The surgical management of moderate to severe regurgitation showed corrective benefits post-operatively and was associated with low incidence of early mortality and re-operation.
Among 65 neonates with encephalopathy undergoing cooling, 30 (46.1%) received chest compressions during delivery room resuscitation. Despite differences in encephalopathy severity, early (<24 hours) biventricular function on echocardiogram (fractional area change, myocardial performance indices, systolic to diastolic duration ratios, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion) was comparable between groups with and without chest compressions. Epinephrine receipt was associated with abnormal tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion.
We report a neonate with dilated cardiomyopathy and have echocardiographic findings consistent with “functional” tricuspid atresia. There was an echo-bright, plate-like tissue at the tricuspid valve position with no forward flow across it. This report underscores the role of right ventricle intracavitary haemodynamic influence on the tricuspid valve leaflet excursion and demonstrates a phenomenon of “pseudo or functional tricuspid atresia” mimicking tricuspid atresia in a patient with acute presentation of cardiomyopathy.
Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in patients with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum has been rarely reported. Data are lacking on the impact and management of systemic ventricular outflow tract obstruction that developed following the Fontan procedure. We report a case of an 8-year-old male who developed left ventricular outflow tract obstruction 6 months after the Fontan procedure.
Conduit stenosis is a major, albeit rare, complication following the Fontan palliation. A single-baffle conduit with polytetrafluoroethylene is widely used for an extracardiac type Fontan palliation. A polyethylene terephthalate conduit (Dacron) is sometimes used for the conduit when more flexibility is required. A Y-shaped conduit is rarely used, but it may reduce the energy loss and achieve better hepatic flow distribution. Data on the long-term patency and complications when using a Y-shaped Dacron conduit is lacking. We report a case of a severely stenotic Y-shaped Dacron conduit in a patient who underwent extracardiac Fontan palliation.
The number of adults requiring surgeries for CHD is increasing. We sought to evaluate the utility of the vasoactive-ventilation-renal (VVR) score as a predictor of prolonged length of stay in adults following CHD surgery.
This is a retrospective review of 158 adult patients who underwent CHD surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass. VVR score was calculated upon arrival to ICU and every 6 hours for the first 48 hours post-operatively. Our primary outcome was prolonged length of stay defined as hospital length of stay greater than 75th percentile for the cohort (≥8 days).
The study cohort had a median age of 25.6 years (18–60 years), and 83 (52.5%) were male. The groups with and without prolonged length of stay were comparable in age, gender, race, and surgical severity score. VVR score was significantly higher at all time points in the group with prolonged length of stay. The first post-operative day peak VVR score ≥13 had a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 75% for predicting prolonged length of stay (p = 0.0001). On regression analysis, peak VVR score during the first day was independently associated with prolonged length of stay.
Peak VVR score during the first post-operative day was a strong predictor of prolonged length of stay in adults following CHD surgery.
Rhabdomyomas are the most common paediatric cardiac tumours. The natural history of these tumours is mostly benign, and the tumour usually regresses spontaneously. Although surgical resection of these tumours is one of the considerations in patients with ventricular outflow obstruction, a palliation with Blalock–Taussig shunt is an alternative approach with the hope of regression of the tumour over time. We report a case of prenatally diagnosed rhabdomyomas in the right ventricle and its outflow presenting as hemodynamic simulating hypoplastic right ventricle in a newborn. She required prostaglandin and Blalock–Taussig shunts palliation for pulmonary flow and subsequent regression of tumours.
Aneurysm formation around the site of coarctation of aortic arch is a well-recognised complication of untreated coarctation and is associated with an increased risk of aortic rupture and mortality. We present a rare case in a teenage girl with the combination of significant aortic arch coarctation, a “cauliflower-like” saccular aneurysm, and stenosis at the origin of the left subclavian artery. She was successfully managed with a hybrid approach, which is a combination of an endovascular surgical repair (a bypass graft placement from left carotid artery to subclavian artery by a vascular surgeon) and a transcatheter covered stent placement across the stenosis and aneurysm. This case highlights the successful role of a hybrid approach in patient’s who present with a combination of coarctation of the aorta and aortic arch aneurysms. This approach avoids the conventional surgical aortoplasty, which carries a higher mortality and morbidity risk in teenage patients.
Thrombosis, especially in the Fontan pathway, is one of the major concerns in patients who underwent Fontan surgery, with reported prevalence of 5–33%. We report a case of thrombus in a rudimentary left ventricle in teenager with no arrhythmia or neurological complications. We also report the special concerns of silent thrombus and role of cardiac MRI in diagnosing an intracardiac thrombus.
Primary pediatric cardiac tumors are extremely rare. We report a 14-year-old girl with primary cardiac Hodgkin lymphoma. The large right atrial tumor extended upward and occluded the superior caval vein and left innominate vein.
A 16-year-old Caucasian male was diagnosed with recurrent infective endocarditis associated with his second Melody valve placed inside a previously treated infected Melody valve. The replacement of Melody valve after the first infective endocarditis episode might increase the risk of the second episode of infective endocarditis.
Symptomatic, circulatory collapse occurred in an unvaccinated child with repaired congenital heart and a backup pacemaker during an Influenza B viral infection with complete atrioventricular block and pacemaker non-capture. Ventricular arrhythmias occurred during her collapse. Atrioventricular conduction recovered within 24 hours. Influenza-associated cardiac inflammation can adversely affect patients with repaired CHD. Proactive immunisation is strongly recommended.
Obesity is a modifiable, independent risk factor for mortality and morbidity after cardiovascular surgery in adults. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of obesity on short-term outcomes in adolescents undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD).
This retrospective chart review included patients 10–18 years of age who underwent CHD surgery. Our exclusion criteria were patients with a known genetic syndrome, heart transplantation, and patients with incomplete medical records. The clinical data collected included baseline demographics and multiple perioperative variables. Charting the body mass index in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth curves, the entire cohort was divided into three categories: obese (>95th percentile), overweight (85th–95th percentile), and normal weight (<85th percentile). The composite outcome included survival, arrhythmias, surgical wound infection, acute neurologic injury, and acute kidney injury.
The study cohort (n = 149) had a mean standard deviation (SD), body mass index (BMI) of 22.6 ± 6.5 g/m2, and 65% were male. There were 27 obese (18.1%), 24 overweight (16.1%), and 98 normal weight (65.8%) patients. Twenty-seven (18%) patients had composite adverse outcomes. Overweight and obese patients had significantly higher adverse outcomes compared with normal weight patients (odds ratio (OR): 2.9; confidence interval (CI): 1–8.5, p = 0.04 and OR: 3; CI: 1–8.5, p = 0.03, respectively). In multivariate analysis, obesity was an independent predictor of adverse outcome in our cohort (p = 0.04).
Obesity is associated with short-term adverse outcome and increased health resource utilisation in adolescents following surgery for CHD. Further studies should evaluate if intervention in the preoperative period can improve outcomes in this population.
Anthracycline-associated cardiotoxicity in childhood cancer survivors may relate to global or segmental left ventricular abnormalities from associated thromboembolic events and myocardial microinfarcts. We characterized left ventricular segmental changes by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in anthracycline-treated asymptomatic childhood cancer survivors.
Methods and Results:
Childhood cancer survivors’ echocardiograms with normal left ventricular fractional shortening >1 year after anthracycline chemotherapy were studied. Cancer-free control children had normal echocardiograms. Apical two-, three-, and four-chamber peak systolic left ventricular longitudinal and global longitudinal strain, and peak systolic left ventricular radial and circumferential strain at papillary muscle levels were analyzed. The mean (standard deviation) age was 12.7 (3.8) years in 41 childhood cancer survivors. The median (interquartile range) follow-up after anthracycline chemotherapy was 4.73 (2.15–8) years. The median (range) cumulative anthracycline dose was 160.2 (60–396.9) mg/m2. In childhood cancer survivors, the mean (standard deviation) left ventricular longitudinal strain was lower in two- (−18.6 [3.2] versus −21.3 [2.5], p < 0.001), three- (−16.3 [6.0] versus −21.7 [3.0], p < 0.001), and four- (−17.6 [2.7] versus −20.8 [2.0], p < 0.001) chamber views compared to controls. The left ventricular global longitudinal strain (−17.6 [2.7] versus −21.3 [2.0]) and circumferential strain (−20.8 [4.3] versus −23.5 [2.6], p < 0.001) were lower in childhood cancer survivors. Among childhood cancer survivors, 12 out of 16 left ventricular segments had significantly lower longitudinal strain than controls.
Asymptomatic anthracycline-treated childhood cancer survivors with normal left ventricular fractional shortening had lower global longitudinal and circumferential strain. The left ventricular longitudinal strain was lower in majority of the segments, suggesting that anthracycline cardiotoxicity is more global than regional.
Congenital complete tracheal rings are usually associated with pulmonary slings. We report a rare association of congenital complete tracheal rings with hypoplastic left heart variant. A term infant with diagnosis of a mildly hypoplastic mitral valve, unicuspid aortic valve, and moderately hypoplastic aortic arch with severe coarctation underwent a hybrid procedure initially. Upon failing extubation attempts, complete tracheal rings were seen on direct laryngoscopy. The combination of the lesions resulted in a poor outcome. In patients with failure of extubation post-cardiac surgery, a diagnosis of complete tracheal rings should be included in the differential and a direct laryngoscopy should be considered.
Parents may experience anxiety and stress when their children undergo cardiac catheterisation. The goal of this study was to assess the level of anxiety in parents of children undergoing cardiac catheterisation and to identify factors that were associated with level of anxiety.
This was a cross-sectional survey of parents of children who underwent cardiac catheterisation. Anxiety levels were measured using a validated self-report questionnaire – State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, which generates state anxiety scores on the current state of anxiety and trait anxiety scores on the stable aspects of anxiety proneness. One sample t-test was used to compare the data with normative data. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the factors associated with the state score.
A total of 113 parents completed the survey. The mean age of parents was 34.0±7.7 years and the mean age of children undergoing catheterisation was 6.7±5.7 years. Compared with normative data, mean state score was significantly higher in our cohort (p<0.05) despite no difference in the trait score. Final multivariate model showed that the state score was significantly associated with child age group (<1 year [coefficient β 7.2] and 10–18 years [6.3], compared to 1 to <10 years of age [reference]) and history of previous catheterisation (−5.2) (p<0.05).
Concurrent state anxiety level was high among parents of children undergoing cardiac catheterisation, whereas trait anxiety level was not. Higher anxiety was experienced by parents of infants and adolescents without a history of previous catheterisation.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of acute kidney injury after first-stage surgical palliation in patients with a single ventricle and to explore associated risk factors and outcomes.
Design and patients
This single-centre retrospective study included neonates who underwent either Norwood or Hybrid procedure from 2008 to 2015 for a single ventricle. Postoperative acute kidney injury was defined using the paediatric risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage renal disease (pRIFLE), criteria within 72 hours of the procedure.
Our cohort (n=48) underwent surgical palliation at a mean (SD) age of 12 (11) days. Postoperative acute kidney injury was diagnosed in 14 (29%) patients. The prevalence of acute kidney injury in the Hybrid group was 16% and 53% in the Norwood group. Infants who developed acute kidney injury underwent surgery at younger ages [6 (5–10) versus 10 (8–16) days, p=0.016], and had a higher peak lactate level in the initial 24 hours [5.9 (4.2–9.1) versus 3.4 (2.4–6.7), p=0.007]. Norwood procedure was significantly associated with acute kidney injury [odds ratio 11.7 (95% confidence interval 1.3–101.9), p=0.03]. ICU stay [38 (21–84) versus 16 (6–45) days, p=0.038] and time to extubation [204 (120–606) versus 72 (26–234) hours, p=0.014] were longer in those with acute kidney injury. The two patients who developed early postoperative renal failure as per pRIFLE died before discharge from associated comorbidities.
Acute kidney injury occurs in a third of the patients with single ventricle after surgical palliation but is mostly transient. Norwood, compared with Hybrid procedure, is a risk factor for postoperative acute kidney injury, which, in turn, is associated with longer ICU stay and time to extubation.
Arterial switch operation has become the standard of care for d-transposition of great arteries and has excellent short- and long-term outcomes. We report the case of a newborn with a diagnosis of d-transposition of great arteries with intact ventricular septum and a low-risk coronary artery anatomy who developed coronary artery vasospasm while coming off bypass following arterial switch operation in the operating room. The coronary artery spasm led to severe biventricular dysfunction and need for extracorporeal membranous oxygenation support. Despite extracorporeal membranous oxygenation and inotropic support, there was no improvement in the left ventricular function, and cardiac transplantation was performed after 8 days. The explanted heart showed extensive infarction of both ventricles. Both the coronary ostei were patent with no evidence of thrombus, suggesting coronary artery vasospasm rather than embolus or thrombus formation. This is the first case of coronary artery vasospasm in a neonate with d-transposition of great arteries leading to cardiac transplantation. We speculate that early identification of patients who are at a high risk for coronary vasospasm and prophylactic or timely infusion of papaverine directly into the coronary arteries may be beneficial in this condition.
There is a need for clinical tools to identify cultural issues in diagnostic assessment.
To assess the feasibility, acceptability and clinical utility of the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) in routine clinical practice.
Mixed-methods evaluation of field trial data from six countries. The CFI was administered to diagnostically diverse psychiatric out-patients during a diagnostic interview. In post-evaluation sessions, patients and clinicians completed debriefing qualitative interviews and Likert-scale questionnaires. The duration of CFI administration and the full diagnostic session were monitored.
Mixed-methods data from 318 patients and 75 clinicians found the CFI feasible, acceptable and useful. Clinician feasibility ratings were significantly lower than patient ratings and other clinician-assessed outcomes. After administering one CFI, however, clinician feasibility ratings improved significantly and subsequent interviews required less time.
The CFI was included in DSM-5 as a feasible, acceptable and useful cultural assessment tool.