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The Sewol ferry disaster is one of the most tragic events in Korea’s modern history. Among the 476 people on board, which included Danwon High School students (324) and teachers (14), 304 passengers died in the disaster (295 recovered corpses and 9 missing) and 172 survived. Of the rescued survivors, 72 were attending Danwon High School, located in Ansan City, and residing in a residence nearby. Because the students were young, emotionally susceptible adolescents, both the government and the parents requested the students be grouped together at a single hospital capable of appropriate psychiatric care. Korea University Ansan Hospital was the logical choice, as the only third-tier university-grade hospital with the necessary faculty and facilities within the residential area of the families of the students. We report the experiences and the lessons learned from the processes of preparing for and managing the surviving young students as a community-based hospital. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:389–393)
Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are prevalent incident findings on brain MRI scans among elderly people and have been consistently implicated in cognitive dysfunction. However, differential roles of WMH by region in cognitive function are still unclear. The aim of this study was to ascertain the differential role of regional WMH in predicting progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to different subtypes of dementia.
Participants were recruited from the Clinical Research Center for Dementia of South Korea (CREDOS) study. A total of 622 participants with MCI diagnoses at baseline and follow-up evaluations were included for the analysis. Initial MRI scans were rated for WMH on a visual rating scale developed for the CREDOS. Differential effects of regional WMH in predicting incident dementia were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model.
Of the 622 participants with MCI at baseline, 139 patients (22.3%) converted to all-cause dementia over a median of 14.3 (range 6.0–36.5) months. Severe periventricular WMH (PWMH) predicted incident all-cause dementia (Hazard ratio (HR) 2.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43–3.43) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) (HR 1.86; 95% CI 1.12–3.07). Subcortical vascular dementia (SVD) was predicted by both PWMH (HR 16.14; 95% CI 1.97–132.06) and DWMH (HR 8.77; 95% CI 1.77–43.49) in more severe form (≥ 10 mm).
WMH differentially predict dementia by region and severity. Our findings suggest that PWMH may play an independent role in the pathogenesis of dementia, especially in AD.
An FM-ultra-wideband (UWB) system with a wideband RF carrier (WRC) is proposed for wireless body area network applications. The proposed system can control the channel power by means of an adjustable carrier bandwidth (BW), while the conventional one with a CW carrier (CWC) makes use of peak power control. The implemented WRC system performances have been evaluated for the WRC generation and digital data transmission. In addition, transmission performances have been compared with that of a conventional CWC system by bit-error-rate (BER) tests. For random data of a 29−1 pattern at a data-rate of 64 kbps, in spite of the flexible carrier BW, the WRC system has presented excellent transmission capability compared with that of the CWC system.
We fabricated PMOS SPC-Si TFTs which show better current uniformity than ELA poly-Si TFTs and superior stability compare to a-Si:H TFT on a glass substrate employing alternating magnetic field crystallization. However the leakage current of SPC-Si TFT was rather high for circuit element of AMOLED display due to many grain boundaries which could be electron hole generation centers. We applied off-state bias annealing of VGS=5V, VDS=-20V in order to suppress the leakage current of SPC-Si TFT. When the off-state bias annealing was applied on the SPC-Si TFT, the electron carriers were trapped in the gate insulator by high gate-drain voltage (25V). The trapped electron carriers could reduce the gate-drain field, so that the leakage current of SPC-Si TFT was reduced after off-state bias annealing. . We also applied same off state bias annealing at SPC-Si TFT with 20,000 lx light illumination in order to verify the reduction of leakage current of SPC-Si TFT under light illumination. The leakage current of SPC-Si TFT was reduced successfully even under light illumination during off-state bias annealing. The off-state bias annealed SPC-Si TFT could be used as pixel element of high quality AMOLED display.
The breakdown voltage of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN rectifiers as function of a doping concentration and the width of epitaxial layer were successfully modeled in the reach-through case. The breakdown voltage was derived by the impact ionization integral employing the effective impact ionization coefficient and an accurate approximation. Our model shows that the breakdown voltage of wurtzite GaN rectifier was larger than those of zinc-blende GaN rectifier and SiC rectifiers including 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC in the condition that both the thickness and doping concentration of epitaxial layer are identical.
We have proposed nitrous oxide (N2O) plasma pre-treatment in order to reduce the oxide charge densities as well as to increase the breakdown field of silicon dioxide film for flexible display. Our experimental results show that the proposed treatment improved both the flat-band voltage from –3V to –1.8V and the breakdown voltage of gate oxide from 7MV/cm to 9.5MV/cm, respectively. The proposed treatment also improved poly-Si TFT characteristics such as low sub-threshold swing of 0.43V/dec.
We report new lateral grain growth mechanism by XeCl excimer laser annealing on a-Si film with pre-patterned Al layer. 2000Å-thick Al pattern on 800Å-thick PECVD a-Si film successfully reflects the incident laser beam and results in temperature gradient during the recrystallization process. The TEM images show that grain growth near the boundary between the liquid and the solid region exhibits a different mechanism compared with the conventional ELA. About 1.5 m-long lateral grain has been successfully obtained by single laser irradiation
A poly-Si TFT with single grain boundary in the channel has been fabricated by the proposed excimer laser annealing. An excellent device characteristics such as mobility more than 250cm2/Vsec, high On/Off current ratio of 6.3×106 and low threshold voltage less than 1 V has been obtained. The experimental results show that the mobility, threshold voltage and sub-threshold slope of proposed TFTs are superior to those of the conventional TFTs.
XeCl excimer laser was irradiated on metal induced laterally crystallized (MILC) polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) film in order to eliminate the intra-grain defects of MILC poly-Si film which incorporated 2 μm wide metal induced crystallized (MIC) poly-Si line pattern. On the irradiation of the laser beams, different melt and recrystallization phenomena were observed in the MILC and the MIC poly-Si region due to the Ni content difference in each film. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements indicated that the melting temperature of the poly-Si film decreased as the Ni content increased. With the laser irradiation energy density of 370 mJ/cm2, 2 μm long defect-free poly-Si grain was successfully grown in the MILC poly-Si due to the melting temperature variation at the MILC-MIC poly-Si boundary.
We have proposed and fabricated a novel poly-Si TFT that is integrated into the gate-data line-crossover in order to increase aperture ratio and to decrease signal delay of AMLCD panel and electrical characteristics of TFT integrated into gate-data line-crossover almost are identical to conventional TFT. The aperture ratio of AMLCD panel was increased considerably because the TFT was located under the opaque metal line. We employed a low dielectric air-gap between the gate-data line crossover, which reduced a capacitance between the gate and data lines so that the RC signal delay of the data line is decreased significantly. Our experimental result shows that the fabricated TFT was successfully operated and the proposed structure found to reduce the RC signal delay has been reduced by factor of 9 compared with conventional AMLCD panel that employs SiO2 for insulator between gate and data lines.
A high-quality silicon dioxide (SiO2) suitable for a gate oxide on plastic substrates is successfully deposited by e-gun evaporation at room temperature. The e-gun evaporated oxide film is free from troublesome hydrogen atoms and high-energy ion damage, which ensures good electrical characteristics. N2O/N2 plasma post-treatment was effective to reduce the flat band voltage and leakage current of the evaporated oxides due to the passivation of high-energy nitrogen and oxygen radicals. In the SiO2 film treated by N2O/N2 plasma for 1 minute, the flat band voltage has been reduced from −2.5V to about −0.5V and the leakage current has been decreased by more than one order. Our experimental results show that very low temperature SiO2 film suitable for a gate insulator of TFTs on the plastic substrates has been successfully obtained by the e-gun evaporation and N2O/N2 plasma post-treatment.
A new excimer laser recrystallization method of amorphous silicon is proposed to increase the grain size and control the grain boundary locations in polycrystalline silicon films. The proposed method is based on the lateral grain growth which occurs at the interface between molten and unmolten regions. To obtain selectively molten regions, the proposed method employs aluminum patterns on amorphous silicon. The aluminum patterns act as the beam shield during the laser irradiation as well as the lateral heat sink during the solidification period. The high reflectance of aluminum at the wavelength of XeCl excimer laser offers stable beam shielding property, and the high thermal conductivity enhances the lateral heat flow by the quick draining of laterally propagated heat. TEM observation has revealed that the well arranged large grains were successfully obtained.
In the scribe lane, which is located at the frame neighboring two chips, most of the test patterns for monitoring electrical characteristics of memory device as well as various key patterns for photo process are formed. The pattern density of these regions is lower than that of the main chip area, and cause nitride erosion by dishing phenomena during HSS STI CMP process. Nitride erosion occurred in the scribe lane region, could the affect erosion properties of cell region in main chip area, results in within die remain nitride variation and marginal fail in device operation. In this work, in order to prevent these problems, pattern design in the scribe lane was modified so as not to occurs within die remain nitride variation. The effects of improvement in within die remain nitride variation were investigated by FIB-TEM analysis and its correlation with electrical properties were explained.
We have proposed and fabricated a new poly-Si TFT that employs selectively doped regions between the source and drain in order to reduce leakage current without the sacrifice of the on current. In the proposed poly-Si TFTs, the selectively doped regions where doping concentration is identical to that of source/drain, reduce the effective channel length during the on state. Under the off state, the selectively doped regions may reduce the lateral electric field induced in the depletion region near drain so that the leakage current reduces considerably. The experimental data of the proposed TFT shows that it has the high on-current, low leakage current and low threshold voltage when compared with conventional TFT. The fabrication steps for the proposed TFT are reduced because ion-implantation for source/drain and selectively doped regions is performed simultaneously prior to an excimer laser irradiation. It should be noted that, in the proposed TFT, only one excimer laser annealing is required while two excimer laser annealing steps are required in conventional TFT.
A simple low-temperature excimer-laser doping process employing phosphosilicate glass (PSG) and borosilicate glass (BSG) films as dopant sources is proposed in order to form source and drain regions for polycrystalline silicon thin film transistors (poly-Si TFTs). We have successfully controlled sheet resistance and dopant depth profile of doped poly-Si films by varying PH3/SiH4 flow ratio, laser energy density and the number of laser pulses. The penetration depth and the surface concentration of dopants were increased with increasing laser energy density and the number of laser pulses. The minimum sheet resistance of 450ω/ for phosphorus (P) doping and 1100ω/ for boron (B) doping were successfully obtained. Our experimental results show that the proposed laser-doping process is suitable for source/drain formation of poly-Si TFTs.
An ultra-low temperature (< 200°C) polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) film is fabricated for the plastic substrate application using inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD) and excimer laser annealing. The precursor active layer is deposited using the SiH4/He mixture at 150°C (substrate). The deposited silicon film consists of crystalline component as well as hydrogenated amorphous component. The hydrogen content in the precursor layer is less than 5 at%. The grain size of the precursor active silicon film is about 200nm and it is increased up to 500nm after excimer laser irradiation.
We have fabricated the a-Si:H film for pixel region and poly-Si film for driver region on the same glass substrate by a rapid thermal process successfully. By employing the halogen lamp, the considerable amount of hydrogen in the PECVD a-Si:H film, which causes the undesirable film ablation due to hydrogen evolution during excimer laser annealing, could be reduced selectively in the peripheral driver area where the a-Si:H film is recrystallized into poly-Si film in order to obtain the high mobility. After rapid thermal annealing, the hydrogen content in a-Si:H films, of which the inherent hydrogen content was found to be about 10–12 at. %, is successfully reduced to less than 5 at. %. The annealing conditions for dehydrogenation are 500, 550, 600 and 650 °C with various halogen lamp irradiation period which are below the point of the glass shrinkage. It should be noted that after rapid thermal annealing, any physical damage in the glass substrate has not been observed.
Anew excimer laser recrystallization method of a-Si film to increase the grain size of poly-Si film has been proposed. Excimer laser energy was locally modulated by being irradiated on stepped substrate with 500 nm deep trench on which a-Si film was deposited. Fairly large poly-Si grains (over 1 µm) were obtained due to lateral thermal gradient which resulted from the laser energy difference on the vertical wall and on the horizontal bottom plane of the trench without altering laser energy density elaborately.
The performance of polysilicon thin film transistors fabricated by two-step annealing, which consists of furnace annealing and subsequent excimer laser annealing, is described. It was found that the average grain size of low temperature furnace annealed polysilicon films was several times larger than that of excimer laser annealed polysilicon films while the density of in-grain defect in low temperature furnace annealed films was much higher than that of excimer laser annealed film. The device characteristics of the low temperature furnace annealed polysilicon thin film transistors were improved significantly by postannealing, such as high temperature furnace annealing and excimer laser annealing, due to the effective elimination of in-grain defects. The density of trap states, which was extracted from the transfer curves of polysilicon thin film transistors, was used to demonstrate the effects of modifying the deep and tail trap levels by two-step annealing.
The closed-form analytic solutions for the breakdown voltage of 6H-SiC RTD, reachthrough diode, having the structure of p+-n-n+, are successfully derived by solving the impact ionization integral using effective ionization coefficient in the reachthrough condition. In the region of the lowly doped epitaxial layer, the breakdown voltages of 6H-SiC RTD nearly constant with the increased doping concentration. Also the breakdown voltages of 6H-SiC RTD decrease, in the region of the highly doped epitaxial layer, which coincides with Baliga'seq. .