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To examine the hypothesis that the association between vitamin D deficiency and depressive symptoms is dependent upon total cholesterol level in a representative national sample of the South Korean population.
This was a population-based cross-sectional study.
The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, 2010–2012).
We included 7198 adults aged 20–88 years.
The incidence of depressive symptoms in individuals with vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<20 ng/ml) was 1·54-fold (95 % CI 1·20, 1·98) greater than in individuals without vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D ≥20 ng/ml). The relationship was stronger in individuals with normal-to-borderline serum total cholesterol (serum total cholesterol<240 mg/dl; OR=1·60; 95 % CI 1·23, 2·08) and non-significant in individuals with high serum total cholesterol (OR=0·97; 95 % CI 0·52, 1·81) after adjustment for confounding variables (age, sex, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking status, regular exercise, income level, education level, marital status, changes in body weight, perceived body shape, season of examination date and cholesterol profiles).
The association between vitamin D deficiency and depressive symptoms was weakened by high serum total cholesterol status. These findings suggest that both vitamin D and total cholesterol are important targets for the prevention and treatment of depression.
few studies have addressed the association between the characteristics of ischemic lesions detected by diffusion-weighted imaging (dWi) and the clinical outcome in patients with hyperacute posterior circulation ischemic stroke. this study demonstrates a relationship between the findings assessed by dWi and the outcome in patients with hyperacute posterior circulation ischemic stroke.
We reviewed data from 118 patients who had posterior circulation ischemic stroke within six hours from the onset of their symptoms. the clinical outcome included early neurological deterioration (end) and a favorable outcome at three months after the onset of symptoms. using dWi, the lesion volume and the number and location of injured anatomical regions were analyzed to evaluate whether the results correlated with the clinical outcome measures.
the number of injured anatomical regions assessed by dWi was associated with the initial and delayed neurological status. Both the total volume and the number of injured anatomical regions associated with end and a favorable outcome. analysis of the location of the injured regions determined that only a pontine lesion independently associated with end. interestingly, four out of five patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy exhibited a large infarction volume but minor symptoms.
in patients with hyperacute posterior circulation ischemic strokes, the lesions assessed by dWi were associated with the clinical outcome, regardless of the initial neurological status. dWi is an effective initial imaging tool for assessing the extent of lesions and clinical outcomes in patients with hyperacute posterior circulation ischemic stroke.
(1-x)SiO2/(x)TiO2 composite micro/nano scale fibers with various compositions were successfully prepared by electrospinning their sol-gel precursors of titanium(IV) isopropoxide(TiP), and tetraethyl orthosilicate(TEOS), followed by calcinations. Any gelator or binder was not used in this direct preparation process for composite fibers. The surface morphology and structure of sintered composite fibers were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The crystallization behavior and surface morphology of the as-spun fibers were largely influenced by the calcination temperature and the content of TiO2. The photocatalytic activity of SiO2/TiO2 composite fibers was examined by UV-DRS spectra. The experiments demonstrated that the MB in aqueous solution was successfully photodegraded using SiO2/TiO2 composite nanofibers under UV-visible light irradiation.
We reported the relationship between the structure of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and the capability of hydrogen uptake. The QSPR (quantitative structure-property relationship) method was used to find out the factor which affects the adsorption amount of hydrogen molecule on the MOFs. The derivatives which were substituted by functionalized aromatic rings showed the effect of polarization within the identical topology of the frame and similar lattice constants. And the typical series of MOFs with different topology of the frames were investigated to examine the influence of topological change. For the consideration of saturation of hydrogen adsorption amounts, the result of fitting the adsorption curve with Langmuir-Freundlich equation was used to the QSPR approach additionally. We found out that the polar surface area plays a key role on the adsorption amount of hydrogen molecule into the MOFs and the specific value of electrostatic potential surface was calculated to indicate the interaction between hydrogen molecule and MOF.
The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of computed tomography (CT) images in determining the anatomy and topographic relationship between various important structures. Using 40 ears from 20 patients with various otological diseases, a 3D reconstruction based on the image data from spiral high-resolution CT was performed by segmentation, volume-rendering and surface-rendering algorithms on a personal computer. The 3D display of the middle and inner ear structures was demonstrated in detail. Computer-assisted measurements, many of which could not be easily measured in vivo, of the reconstructed structures provided accurate anatomic details that improved the surgeon’s understanding of spatial relationships. A 3D reconstruction of temporal bone CT might be useful for education and increasing understanding of the anatomical structures of the temporal bone. However, it will be necessary to confirm the correlation between the 3D reconstructed images and histological sections through a validation study.
Hydrogen adsorption mechanism into the porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been studied by density functional theory calculation. The selected functionals for the prediction of interaction energies between hydrogen and potential adsorption sites of MOFs were utilized after the evaluation with the various functionals for interaction energy of H2···C6H6 model system. The adsorption energy of hydrogen molecule into MOFs was investigated with the consideration of the favorable adsorption sites and the orientations. We also calculated the second favorable adsorption sites by geometry optimization using every combination of two first absorbed hydrogen molecules. Based on the calculation of first and second adsorption sites and energies, it has been suggested that the hydrogen adsorption into MOFs follows a cooperative mechanism in which the initial metal sites initiate the propagation of the hydrogen adsorption on the whole frameworks. In addition, the interaction mode between the simple benzene ring with hydrogen is significantly changed when the benzene ring has been incorporated into the framework of MOFs.
In order to decrease the silica content in 16% Cr ferritic stainless steel,
the phases present in deoxidized inclusions were predicted by the FACT model.
To decrease the amount of deoxidized inclusions and slag inclusions in the melt,
the capacity of alumina absorption was compared using different top slags. In trial tests,
the cleanliness of slabs was significantly improved in 16% Cr ferritic
stainless steel produced by AOD processes and the number of surface defects
of cold coils was also significantly reduced.
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