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Negative affect (NA) has been suggested to be both an antecedent and a consequence of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). Furthermore, negative appraisals of voices have been theorized to contribute to the maintenance of AVH. Using the experience sampling method (ESM), this study examined the bi-directional relationship between NA and AVH, and the moderating effect of negative beliefs about voices.
Forty-seven patients diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders with frequent AVH completed a clinical interview, followed by ESM for 10 times a day over 6 days on an electronic device. Time-lagged analyses were conducted using multilevel regression modeling. Beliefs about voices were assessed at baseline.
A total of 1654 data points were obtained. NA predicted an increase in AVH in the subsequent moment, and AVH predicted an increase in NA in the subsequent moment. Baseline beliefs about voices as malevolent and omnipotent significantly strengthened the association between NA and AVH within the same moment. In addition, the belief of omnipotence was associated with more hallucinatory experiences in the moment following NA. However, beliefs about voices were not associated directly with momentary levels of NA or AVH.
Experiences of NA and AVH drove each other, forming a feedback loop that maintained the voices. The associations between NA and AVH, either within the same moment or across moments, were exacerbated by negative beliefs about voices. Our results suggest that affect-improving interventions may stop the feedback loop and reduce AVH frequency.
Default mode network (DMN) has been reported to be susceptible to APOE ε 4 genotype. However, the APOE ε 4-related brain changes in young carriers are different from the ones in elderly carriers. The current study aimed to evaluate the cortical morphometry of DMN subregions in cognitively normal elderly with APOE ε 4.
11 cognitively normal senior APOE ε 4 carriers and 27 matched healthy controls (HC) participated the neuropsychological tests, genotyping, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was used to assess the global volumetric changes. Surface-based morphometry (SBM) analysis was performed to measure regional gray matter volume (GMV) and gray matter thickness (GMT).
Advancing age was associated with decreased GMV of DMN subregions. Compared to HC, APOE ε 4 carriers presented cortical atrophy in right cingulate gyrus (R_CG) (GMV: APOE carriers: 8475.23 ± 1940.73 mm3, HC: 9727.34 ± 1311.57 mm3, t = 2.314, p = 0.026, corrected) and left insular (GMT: APOE ε 4 carriers: 3.83 ± 0.37 mm, HC: 4.05 ± 0.25 mm, t = 2.197, p = 0.033, corrected).
Our results highlight the difference between different cortical measures and suggest that the cortical reduction of CG and insular maybe a potential neuroimaging marker for APOE 4 ε senior carriers, even in the context of relatively intact cognition.
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