To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Psychosocial acceleration theory suggests that pubertal maturation is accelerated in response to adversity. In addition, suboptimal caregiving accelerates development of the amygdala–medial prefrontal cortex circuit. These findings may be related. Here, we assess whether associations between family environment and measures of the amygdala–medial prefrontal cortex circuit are mediated by pubertal development in more than 2000 9- and 10-year-old children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (http://dx.doi.org/10.15154/1412097). Using structural equation modeling, demographic, child-reported, and parent-reported data on family dynamics were compiled into a higher level family environment latent variable. Magnetic resonance imaging preprocessing and compilations were performed by the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study's data analysis core. Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) thickness, area, white matter fractional anisotropy, amygdala volume, and cingulo-opercular network–amygdala resting-state functional connectivity were assessed. For ACC cortical thickness and ACC fractional anisotropy, significant indirect effects indicated that a stressful family environment relates to more advanced pubertal stage and more mature brain structure. For cingulo-opercular network–amygdala functional connectivity, results indicated a trend in the expected direction. For ACC area, evidence for quadratic mediation by pubertal stage was found. Sex-stratified analyses suggest stronger results for girls. Despite small effect sizes, structural measures of circuits important for emotional behavior are associated with family environment and show initial evidence of accelerated pubertal development.
Around 60 000 people in England live in mental health supported accommodation. There are three main types: residential care, supported housing and floating outreach. Supported housing and floating outreach aim to support service users in moving on to more independent accommodation within 2 years, but there has been little research investigating their effectiveness.
A 30-month prospective cohort study investigating outcomes for users of mental health supported accommodation.
We used random sampling, accounting for relevant geographical variation factors, to recruit 87 services (22 residential care, 35 supported housing and 30 floating outreach) and 619 service users (residential care 159, supported housing 251, floating outreach 209) across England. We contacted services every 3 months to investigate the proportion of service users who successfully moved on to more independent accommodation. Multilevel modelling was used to estimate how much of the outcome and cost variations were due to service type and quality, after accounting for service-user characteristics.
Overall 243/586 participants successfully moved on (residential care 15/146, supported housing 96/244, floating outreach 132/196). This was most likely for floating outreach service users (versus residential care: odds ratio 7.96, 95% CI 2.92–21.69, P < 0.001; versus supported housing: odds ratio 2.74, 95% CI 1.01–7.41, P < 0.001) and was associated with reduced costs of care and two aspects of service quality: promotion of human rights and recovery-based practice.
Most people do not move on from supported accommodation within the expected time frame. Greater focus on human rights and recovery-based practice may increase service effectiveness.
Declaration of interest
H.K., S.P., M.K., S.E., P. McCrone, M.A., S.C., G.L. and G.S. report a grant from National Institute of Health Research during the conduct of the study. All other authors report having no conflicts to disclose.
Douglas Nakashima, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), France,Igor Krupnik, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC,Jennifer T. Rubis, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), France
Cognitive models of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) posit dysfunctional appraisal of disorder-relevant stimuli in patients, suggesting disturbances in the processes relying on amygdala–prefrontal connectivity. Recent neuroanatomical models add to the traditional view of dysfunction in corticostriatal circuits by proposing alterations in an affective circuit including amygdala–prefrontal connections. However, abnormalities in amygdala–prefrontal coupling during symptom provocation, and particularly during conditions that require stimulus appraisal, remain to be demonstrated directly.
Amygdala–prefrontal connectivity was examined in unmedicated OCD patients during appraisal (v. distraction) of symptom-provoking stimuli compared with an emotional control condition. Subsequent analyses tested whether hypothesized connectivity alterations could be also identified during passive viewing and the resting state in two independent samples.
During symptom provocation, reductions in positive coupling between amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex were observed in OCD patients relative to healthy control participants during appraisal and passive viewing of OCD-relevant stimuli, whereas abnormally high amygdala–ventromedial prefrontal cortex coupling was found when appraisal was distracted by a secondary task. In contrast, there were no group differences in amygdala connectivity at rest.
Our finding of abnormal amygdala–prefrontal connectivity during appraisal of symptom-related (relative to generally aversive) stimuli is consistent with the involvement of affective circuits in the functional neuroanatomy of OCD. Aberrant connectivity can be assumed to impact stimulus appraisal and emotion regulation, but might also relate to fear extinction deficits, which have recently been described in OCD. Taken together, we propose to integrate abnormalities in amygdala–prefrontal coupling in affective models of OCD.
Background: Childhood adversity, dissociation and adult attachment have all been implicated in the development of hallucinations or ‘voice-hearing’. Testing psychological models in relation to subclinical phenomena, such as proneness to hallucinations in non-clinical samples, provides a convenient methodology to develop understanding of the processes and mechanisms underlying clinical symptoms. Aims: This paper investigates the relative contribution of childhood adversity, dissociation and adult attachment in explaining hallucination proneness in a non-clinical sample. Methods: Students and staff with no previous contact with secondary care at the University of Manchester were recruited. Participants completed a series of self-report measures: the Launay‒Slade Hallucination Scale (LSHS), the Relationship Scale Questionnaire (RSQ), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Dissociative Experiences Schedule (DES II) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Results: As hypothesized, insecure attachment, childhood adversity and dissociative symptoms were correlated with hallucination proneness. Multiple regression analysis, controlling for confounds of age and negative affect, indicated that the RSQ, CTQ and DES II predicted hallucination proneness. Only DES II and RSQ avoidant attachment were significant independent predictors in the final model. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence to support the idea that attachment and dissociation are important psychological mechanisms involved in voice-hearing proneness. Further testing is required with a clinical population.
To examine the association between breast-feeding duration and the risk of excess body weight (children >85th percentile, mothers BMI≥25·0 kg/m2) concurrently in mother–child pairs two years after delivery.
Prospective cohort study in Joinville, Brazil. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the independent relationship between breast-feeding duration and risk of excess body weight.
Brazilian public maternity hospital.
Three hundred and five mother–child pairs.
At 2-year follow-up, 23·6 % of mother–child pairs had excess body weight. Children breast-fed for <2 months were more likely to have excess body weight than children breast-fed for ≥6 months (OR=2·4; 95 % CI 1·1, 5·1). Breast-feeding for <2 months was also associated with a greater likelihood of maternal excess body weight compared with those who breast-fed for ≥6 months (OR=2·9; 95 % CI 1·1, 8·1). There was a progressive increase in the likelihood of mother–child pairs having excess body weight as breast-feeding duration decreased. In addition to breast-feeding duration, other independent determinants of excess body weight were pre-pregnancy weight, gestational weight gain and number of pregnancies in mothers, and birth weight in children.
Breast-feeding for a longer duration has a parallel protective effect on the risk of excess body weight in mother–child pairs two years after birth. Since members of the same family could be influenced by the same risk factors, continued promotion and support of breast-feeding may help to attenuate the rising prevalence of overweight in mother–child pairs.
Over the (slightly more than) two decades that the European Journal of Archaeology (formerly the Journal of European Archaeology) has been in print, we have published a number of excellent and high profile articles. Among these, Paul Treherne's seminal meditation on Bronze Age male identity and warriorhood stands out as both the highest cited and the most regularly downloaded paper in our archive. Speaking informally with friends and colleagues who work on Bronze Age topics as diverse as ceramics, metalwork, landscape phenomenology, and settlement structure, I found that this paper holds a special place in their hearts. Certainly, it is a staple of seminar reading lists and, in my experience at least, is prone to provoke heated discussions among students on topics as far ranging as gender identity in the past and present, theoretically informed methods for material culture studies, and the validity of using Classical texts for understanding prehistoric worlds. Moreover, in its themes of violence, embodiment, materiality, and the fluidity or ephemeral nature of gendered identities, it remains a crucial foundational text for major debates raging in European prehistoric archaeology in the present day.
Determining which biological traits affect taxonomic durations is critical for explaining macroevolutionary patterns. Two approaches are commonly used to investigate the associations between traits and durations and/or extinction and origination rates: analyses of taxonomic occurrence patterns in the fossil record and comparative phylogenetic analyses, predominantly of extant taxa. By capitalizing upon the empirical record of past extinctions, paleontological data avoid some of the limitations of existing methods for inferring extinction and origination rates from molecular phylogenies. However, most paleontological studies of extinction selectivity have ignored phylogenetic relationships because there is a dearth of phylogenetic hypotheses for diverse non-vertebrate higher taxa in the fossil record. This omission inflates the degrees of freedom in statistical analyses and leaves open the possibility that observed associations are indirect, reflecting shared evolutionary history rather than the direct influence of particular traits on durations. Here we investigate global patterns of extinction selectivity in Devonian terebratulide brachiopods and compare the results of taxonomic vs. phylogenetic approaches. Regression models that assume independence among taxa provide support for a positive association between geographic range size and genus duration but do not indicate an association between body size and genus duration. Brownian motion models of trait evolution identify significant similarities in body size, range size, and duration among closely related terebratulide genera. We use phylogenetic regression to account for shared evolutionary history and find support for a significant positive association between range size and duration among terebratulides that is also phylogenetically structured. The estimated range size–duration relationship is moderately weaker in the phylogenetic analysis due to the down-weighting of closely related genera that were both broadly distributed and long lived; however, this change in slope is not statistically significant. These results provide evidence for the phylogenetic conservatism of organismal and emergent traits, yet also the general phylogenetic independence of the relationship between range size and duration.
Studies of taxonomic diversity over time commonly count and compare first- and last-appearance data (FADs and LADs) over a succession of temporal intervals, and interpret them with respect to taxon origination and extinction. Singleton taxa, which first appear and last appear in the same temporal interval, are often removed from analyses because they might result from preservational biases rather than evolutionary processes, or they might represent non-independent FADs and LADs. Should singleton taxa always be excluded? We argue that in the case of Paleozoic terebratulide brachiopods, although they may be sensitive to biases in sampling intensity, singleton genera should be included in diversity studies because they do not appear to result from more typical biases, such as Lagerstätten and temporal interval length, that arguably can result in artificially high numbers of singleton genera.
Singleton genera can be critical and effective when used to test hypotheses regarding the existence and generation of latitudinal diversity gradients. Contrary to the anti-tropical diversity pattern of modern articulated brachiopods, Paleozoic terebratulides show a latitudinal diversity gradient that peaks in the Tropics. The hypothesis that the Tropics are either a diversity source or sink can be tested by comparing FAD and LAD latitudes. For singleton genera, FAD and LAD latitudes are taken from the same data points and must be removed for statistical comparisons to be valid. We suggest that taxon age distributions can accommodate singleton data, as the taxon age metric considers origination and extinction simultaneously. We generated taxon age distributions to test the hypothesis that the observed Paleozoic diversity gradient results from a latitudinal bias in generic turnover rate. We discovered that singletons are not randomly distributed over latitude, with proportionally more singleton genera occurring in the Tropics. In this case, singleton genera may reflect rapid evolutionary turnover of taxa, rather than simply preservational bias. Methods that can accommodate singleton taxa should be used to study the diversity of Paleozoic terebratulides and possibly other well-skeletonized marine metazoans.
The Background Section provides an historical research context for your proposed research. When explaining this context, you need to review the previous research on your topic or research area, and then evaluate its strengths and weaknesses.
A strong Background Section helps reviewers understand that your proposed research is not arbitrary, but the logical outgrowth of previous research. A strong Background Section also helps you persuade reviewers that your proposed research is significant and novel. It is not surprising that NIH has divided its former Background Section into 2 major sections: Significance and Innovation. In contrast to NIH, NSF typically provides little guidance in structuring the Background Section (or the Aims Section), but does identify the need to address the state of knowledge in the field and significance:
The Project Description should provide a clear statement of the work to be undertaken and must include: objectives for the period of the proposed work and expected significance; relation to longer-term goals of the PI’s project; and relation to the present state of knowledge in the field, to work in progress by the PI under other support and to work in progress elsewhere. (emphasis added)
Perhaps due to NSF’s general guidance on the Background Section (and the Aims Section), it is not unusual for the initial section of an NSF narrative to be composed of information equivalent to information in both the Aims and Background Sections (see Chapters 2 and 3). However, most funding agencies still require separate Aims and Background Sections. Before writing the Background Section, you need to review submission requirements from your targeted funding agency and follow them.
Chapter 6 continues the description of the Methods Section begun in Chapter 5 and focuses on:
Data interpretation and expected outcomes
Potential problems and proposed solutions
In Chapter 5, Figure 5-1 gives the generic content and organization of a Methods Section. For convenience, this figure is reproduced and renumbered in Chapter 6 as Figure 6-1. Also for convenience, Case 5-9, showing a heading outline of a Methods Section, is also reproduced in this chapter as Case 6-1. Chapter 6 gives generic heading outlines in Tables 6-1 and 6-2. The term subsection will continue to be used in Chapter 6 to refer to a Methods subsection or sub-subsection, unless phrased otherwise for clarity.
Data-collection and data-analysis subsections and procedures
Proposed procedures are the actions and tasks that you intend to execute in order to acquire data that you will then analyze, interpret, and ultimately disseminate in professional journals and at professional meetings.
In the narrative, the specific actions that you and members of your research team intend to perform in order to achieve your proposed research objective and aims are variously termed procedures, protocols, tasks, methods, experiments, and methodological activities. These terms are not synonymous even though they are often used synonymously.
This chapter addresses technical issues with sentences that PIs typically encounter when drafting the narrative of a grant proposal. These issues involve citations, definitions, active grammar and passive grammar, and guidelines for shortening the text while keeping content changes to a minimum.
A citation is a reference that identifies the source of information, whether that source is from a journal, a book, the internet, a committee, or a person. Citations are important in academic documents in general, and they are particularly important in narratives to scientific grant proposals. Citations can enhance your credibility by demonstrating to reviewers the quality, breadth, and depth of your understanding of published research that relates to your research topic.
Some writers include citations while drafting the narrative, others begin including citations when they are close to the final draft, and others are somewhere in between: early in the drafting process, they fill in citations that they readily know and leave the others to later stages of drafting. If you do not include citations in early drafts of your grant proposal, you should at least include placeholders for them. Citation placeholders are symbols, such as XX, that do not ordinarily show up in a search of text and that you insert into the text while drafting to remind you where you need citations.
An abstract is a section separate from the narrative of a grant proposal. The abstract summarizes the most important information from each major section of the narrative. The abstract typically precedes the narrative and is often made available to the public separately from the narrative. Reviewers will likely read the abstract before the narrative, so it plays an important role in helping them form favorable impressions about you and your credibility, and in attracting their interest about your research topic and its significance and novelty.
Different funding agencies name the abstract differently. For example, NIH refers to its abstract as the Project Summary. The Michael J. Fox Foundation refers to the abstract as the Grant Abstract, and the Society of Family Planning calls it a Project Abstract. NSF refers to a similar section as the Project Summary but cautions that the NSF Project Summary “should not be an abstract.” However, as discussed in Chapter 7.1.2, for all practical purposes the NSF Project Summary is an abstract. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation also calls its abstract a Project Summary. Regardless what a funding agency calls its summary to the narrative, in this book it is called an abstract.
We met for the first time when Paul, a neuroscientist and biomedical engineer, was a new assistant professor seeking his first NIH R01 grant and trying to get his first sole-author manuscript published. First submissions of both failed, and the critiques focused on unclear writing. Paul contacted a local university, looking for help with scientific writing, and he was directed to Sandra, a discourse linguist with expertise in technical writing and scientific English. After a 2-month, intensive one-on-one training program, he resubmitted both documents. The grant was funded and the manuscript was accepted. Since then, Paul and Sandra have maintained a close relationship, both professionally and as friends. They began a study of narratives to grant proposals that continues to this day.
Fifteen years later, when Paul became the head of his research institute, he hired Sandra as a full-time scientific writer and editor. In 3 years, 21 of the 22 faculty members had at least one NIH R01, and the institute became the second best-funded department in the university.
Sandra and Paul decided to put what they had learned from studying narratives and helping investigators write and revise narratives into book form in order to share this experience with other researchers. This book is the result of that effort.