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Women and men are assigned roles and responsibilities based on their gender in all contexts. Measuring gender-based differences through gender analysis can help understand who will be at greater risk in disasters. Thus, the present study is aimed to develop a valid and reliable gender analysis tool to collect accurate and necessary gender-disaggregated information in disaster-affected regions.
A mix method approach using qualitative and quantitative studies was applied for conducting this study. A total of 20 people affected by the earthquakes and floods and 10 key informants were interviewed in the qualitative stage. The validity and reliability of the tool were measured using the experts as well as women and men living in the destroyed villages of Razavi Khorasan province during the quantitative stage. The Graneheim approach and SPSS software were used to analyze the data collected in both stages.
At the first stage, 7 categories were extracted from the data, namely, livelihood status, social status, health, household/family management, reconstruction, welfare and educational facilities, and disaster prevention. The results of content validity ratio (0.69) and content validity index (0.88) confirmed that the tool is valid. The amount of Cronbach’s alpha (0.75) and test-retest (0.83) examination indicated that the tool was also reliable. The results of content validity and reliability measurements approved that the gender analysis tool can be applied for postdisaster gender analysis surveys.
It is highly suggested to use the information provided by the gender analysis tool for future disaster management plans, programs, and policies in health systems.
Natural disasters have many effects on vulnerable groups, especially infants and children. Protecting breastfeeding in disasters is important, because artificial feeding puts a lot of risk to the child. In disasters, artificial nutrition is dangerous to children and its supplementation requires special equipment. There is little information on the nutritional status of infants after disasters in Iran.
The purpose of this study was to explore the barriers to appropriate lactation after disasters in Iran.
This was a qualitative study using a content analysis method. A total of 19 midwives with disaster-relief experiences were approached for interview. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Data analysis was performed using the Graneheim’s approach.
The categories of maternal factors, neonatal factors, management factors, and context-base factors were extracted from the data.
The challenges of social support, mothers’ self-efficacy, educated staff for disasters, and privacy for breastfeeding can be considered as important barriers to breastfeeding in disasters. Training programs, as well as health system support, can help overcome the breastfeeding barriers in disasters.
MirMohamadaliIeM, Khani JazaniR, SohrabizadehS, Nikbakht NasrabadiA. Barriers to Breastfeeding in Disasters in the Context of Iran. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(1):20–24.
Violence against women (VAW) is one of the most widespread violations of human rights and a major barrier to achieving gender equality. Violence against women is increased in disaster-stricken communities. Violence experiences, cases, and lessons-learned concerning Iran’s disasters have not been investigated, documented, or shared so far. To fill this knowledge gap, this qualitative study aimed to explore types of VAW and girls after the recent quakes and floods in Iran.
The objective for this study was exploring the manifestations of VAW after the natural disasters in Iran.
A qualitative approach was used for this study. Data were collected by in-depth, unstructured interviews and field observations in three affected regions of Iran, including East Azerbaijan, Bushehr, and Mazandaran. A total of 15 participants, eight damaged women as well as seven key informants, were interviewed. A content analysis using Graneheim approach was performed for analyzing transcribed interviews.
Two main themes were extracted from data, including domestic violence and violence within community. The first theme included three categories: physical, psychological, and sexual violence. Psychological violence and sexual harassment were two categories of violence within the community concept.
Different types of violence emerged from the present research that can be anticipated and integrated into future disaster medicine plans, public health reforms, and national rules of Iran. Improving women’s knowledge on their rights to have a life without violence, and participation of both women and men in violence reduction projects, can be considered in all disaster management phases.
SohrabizadehS. A Qualitative Study of Violence Against Women after the Recent Disasters of Iran. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(4):407–412.
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