The spatial distribution, abundance and assemblage structure of the polychaetes community on the eastern coast of the Cap Bon Peninsula were studied at 25 sites. We found a total of 150 species belonging to 22 families, of which 47 new records and six families have been added to the Tunisian polychaetes fauna, such as Metasychis gotoi (Izuka, 1902), Aricidea cerrutii (Laubier, 1966), Bhawania goodei Webster, 1884 and Eunice tubifex Crossland, 1904. Among the families, Syllidae ranked first by number of species (14 species) and Onuphidae by number of individuals (25% of the total number of individuals). The cluster analysis identified five assemblages of sites that have a significantly similar composition. The five polychaete communities on the eastern coast of the Cap Bon Peninsula were mainly structured by environmental conditions and types of substratum.