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The dynamics of initially truncated and bent line solitons for the Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (KPII) equation modelling internal and surface gravity waves is analysed using modulation theory. In contrast to previous studies on obliquely interacting solitons that develop from acute incidence angles, this work focuses on initial value problems for the obtuse incidence of two or three partial line solitons, which propagate away from one another. Despite counterpropagation, significant residual soliton interactions are observed with novel physical consequences. The initial value problem for a truncated line soliton – describing the emergence of a quasi-one-dimensional soliton from a wide channel – is shown to be related to the interaction of oblique solitons. Analytical descriptions for the development of weak and strong interactions are obtained in terms of interacting simple wave solutions of modulation equations for the local soliton amplitude and slope. In the weak interaction case, the long-time evolution of truncated and large obtuse angle solitons exhibits a decaying, parabolic wave profile with temporally increasing focal length that asymptotes to a cylindrical Korteweg–de Vries soliton. In contrast, the strong interaction case of slightly obtuse interacting solitons evolves into a steady, one-dimensional line soliton with amplitude reduced by an amount proportional to the incidence slope. This strong interaction is identified with the ‘Mach expansion’ of a soliton with an expansive corner, contrasting with the well-known Mach reflection of a soliton with a compressive corner. Interestingly, the critical angles for Mach expansion and reflection are the same. Numerical simulations of the KPII equation quantitatively support the analytical findings.
This is the first report on the association between trauma exposure and depression from the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA(AURORA) multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience.
We focus on participants presenting at EDs after a motor vehicle collision (MVC), which characterizes most AURORA participants, and examine associations of participant socio-demographics and MVC characteristics with 8-week depression as mediated through peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week depression.
Eight-week depression prevalence was relatively high (27.8%) and associated with several MVC characteristics (being passenger v. driver; injuries to other people). Peritraumatic distress was associated with 2-week but not 8-week depression. Most of these associations held when controlling for peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, depressive symptoms at 2-weeks post-trauma.
These observations, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of the mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated in more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA database to find new targets for intervention and new tools for risk-based stratification following trauma exposure.
There is evidence that depression can be prevented; however, traditional approaches face significant scalability issues. Digital technologies provide a potential solution, although this has not been adequately tested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new smartphone app designed to reduce depression symptoms and subsequent incident depression amongst a large group of Australian workers.
A randomized controlled trial was conducted with follow-up assessments at 5 weeks and 3 and 12 months post-baseline. Participants were employed Australians reporting no clinically significant depression. The intervention group (N = 1128) was allocated to use HeadGear, a smartphone app which included a 30-day behavioural activation and mindfulness intervention. The attention-control group (N = 1143) used an app which included a 30-day mood monitoring component. The primary outcome was the level of depressive symptomatology (PHQ-9) at 3-month follow-up. Analyses were conducted within an intention-to-treat framework using mixed modelling.
Those assigned to the HeadGear arm had fewer depressive symptoms over the course of the trial compared to those assigned to the control (F3,734.7 = 2.98, p = 0.031). Prevalence of depression over the 12-month period was 8.0% and 3.5% for controls and HeadGear recipients, respectively, with odds of depression caseness amongst the intervention group of 0.43 (p = 0.001, 95% CI 0.26–0.70).
This trial demonstrates that a smartphone app can reduce depression symptoms and potentially prevent incident depression caseness and such interventions may have a role in improving working population mental health. Some caution in interpretation is needed regarding the clinical significance due to small effect size and trial attrition.
Trial Registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (www.anzctr.org.au/) ACTRN12617000548336
An early rescue excavation in 1900 revealed part of a medieval building of the Dominican friary of Black Friars, London. Further archaeological work in the twentieth century revealed other parts of the building. Here, the authors consider the archaeological and architectural evidence, including a preserved in situ window and two relocated ex situ architectural features. Alfred Clapham suggested in a 1912 article in Archaeologia that the building was the Dominican provincial prior’s house; the present authors instead identify the ground-floor chamber as the late thirteenth-century chapter house. Construction of the friary (the second London Black Friars) began in 1278 or 1279 and the chapter house, funded by a will of 1281, was probably built later in the 1280s. The lower chamber was a well-lit, five-bay undercroft with a quadripartite vault rising from Reigate stone responds and Purbeck marble columns: this was probably the chapter house chamber. The hall-like chamber over was approximately 57ft by 28ft (17.3m × 8.5m) and may have been the library. The building may be the work of Robert of Beverley, the king’s master mason from 1260, perhaps in conjunction with Michael of Canterbury. French royal works of the thirteenth century (such as the lower chapel of the Sainte-Chapelle, Paris) may have served as inspiration.
New U–Pb radioisotopic ages on early Cambrian volcanic zircons condition a high-resolution Bayesian age model that constrains the first occurrences and zonations of West Gondwanan archaeocyaths and trilobites in southern Morocco. The oldest archaeocyaths in the Tiout Member of the Igoudine Formation (519.71 + 0.26/− 0.35 Ma) are c. 6 Ma younger than the oldest Siberian archaeocyaths. The oldest Moroccan trilobite fragments, from the lower member of the Igoudine, are constrained to 519.95 + 0.43/− 0.40 Ma. The succeeding Issendalenian Stage (i.e. Hupetina antique – Eofallotaspis tioutensis – Fallotaspis plana – Choubertella – Daguinaspis trilobite zones) spans c. 1.5 Ma (519.78 + 0.26/− 0.37 Ma to 518.43 + 0.25/− 0.69 Ma). Identifiable Moroccan fallotaspidids and bigotinids, among Earth’s oldest trilobites, occur above a positive δ13C excursion dated with our age model at 520.27 + 0.59/− 0.57 Ma, and correlated with the IV excursion peak within the lower range of Siberian Atdabanian Stage trilobites (Repinaella Zone). This excursion is the best standard for a Cambrian Series 2 base. The oldest West Gondwana trilobite fragments are c. 1 Ma younger than those in Siberia and c. 0.5 Ma older than the oldest Avalonian trilobites (Callavia Zone). This diachrony means a trilobite first appearance datum is an inappropriate chronostratigraphic base for Cambrian Series 2. Taxonomic differences in the oldest trilobites between Cambrian palaeocontinents are in accordance with trace fossil evidence for the group’s appearance possibly as late as c. 530 Ma in the Cambrian Evolutionary Radiation. Coeval 519–517 Ma dates from Avalonia (cool-water siliciclastic shelf) and West Gondwana (tropical carbonate platform) sections with distinct macrofaunas emphasize these successions were latitudinally separate by the late Ediacaran Period.
Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds.
We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes.
In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47–0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10−8–1.0 × 10−10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10−8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10−6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10−11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10−7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10−16).
AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.
Carbon nanomaterials are consistently providing new excitement over their properties and potential applications, but many of these material have yet to fully live up to their expectations commercially. The barrier to adoption often exists as a result of complex processing, fragility of the as-produced material, or difficulty scaling beyond laboratory quantities. This work provides a new approach for utilizing fibrous carbon nanomaterials to advance the technology toward new applications and industrial utility. This is accomplished by creating tailored device architectures through in-situ integration of activated carbon powder using carbon nanofiber deposition. The resulting hybrid materials and components can serve in diverse applications, with each instance able to be fine-tuned through a combination of processing parameters. The applications of such materials are anticipated to directly serve current carbon-based technology in filtration, energy storage and delivery, and thermal management, but the concepts are not limited to current carbon applications.
Grotesque and vulgar, the masked character Gongoli upends the codes of Mende decorum in his madcap pursuit of laughs. His impropriety goes so far as to allow his mask to fall, comically revealing the identity of his dancer and subverting the anonymity so elemental to his fellow spirits’ vaunted status. Yet despite such transgressions, he stands among the most beloved figures of Sierra Leone's rich performance traditions. Gongoli's popularity hinges on his irreverence towards the fundamental laws of masked dance, laws that also regulate the balance between individual agency and communal responsibility, between internal desire and external restraint. The only quality necessary to play Gongoli is shamelessness (ngufe baa), and the greatest performers are acrobats braving risks that are not physical, but social. This article follows Siloh, an itinerant performer whose celebrity inheres in his uncanny similarity to the Gongoli he often plays. The composite figure Siloh Gongoli exemplifies a comic aesthetic relished throughout Sierra Leone in storytelling, ritual, festivals, videos and radio shows. Although mobilized for different ends, each of these conventions undermines principles of self-effacement, gerontocratic privilege and esoteric power by shamelessly playing with and within the existential tensions between interior and exterior selves.
In this investigation, we reported the increase in emergency department and inpatient admission cases during the month of November 2012 post Hurricane Sandy as compared with baseline (November 2010, 2011, and 2013) for elderly patients aged 65 and up.
Medical claims data for patients aged 65 and over treated at emergency department and inpatient health care facilities in New Jersey were analyzed to examine the surge in frequencies of diagnoses treated immediately following Hurricane Sandy. The differences were quantified using gap analysis for 2 years before and 1 year after the event.
There was an average increase of 1700 cases for the month of November 2012 relative to baseline for the top 15 most frequently diagnosed emergency department medical conditions. On a daily basis, a volume increase by an average 57 cases could be expected, including significant numbers of limb fractures and other trauma cases for these most frequently encountered medical conditions.
Understanding the surge level in medical services needed in emergency departments and inpatient facilities during a natural disaster aftermath is critical for effective emergency preparation and response for the elderly population. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:730-738)
THE study of architectural fragments offers us the possibility of understanding – and even reconstructing – long-vanished medieval buildings. In a city such as London – where the Dissolution, the Great Fire, redevelopment and wartime bombing have taken a severe toll on the stock of medieval architecture – architectural fragments are the only surviving primary source for understanding the architectural styles and features of great lost medieval buildings, including the London friaries. More general discussion of the architecture of the friaries can be found in the friary-by-friary chapters of Part I of this book (Chapters 1 to 9), and in Chapter 10: Churches.
The architectural fragments have usually come to us through two processes: demolition and excavation. When masons were dismantling a medieval monastic building, for example in the fourteenth century in order to rebuild it or in the sixteenth century in order to destroy it, the more decorative pieces of stonework – windows, arches, door surrounds – were often recycled as rough foundation material: their particular shapes meant that they were not generally suitable for ‘ordinary’ recycling in new wall superstructures. Several centuries later, modern archaeologists encounter batches of this recycled ‘low value’ stonework in wall foundations. Sometimes this material is studied to great advantage; on other occasions the architectural fragments are retained but languish unstudied in museum store rooms.
About 140 architectural fragments from archaeological sites within the London friary precincts were identified at the Museum of London's archive and stores. The present author then examined this material to assess its potential to yield useful information about the architecture, structure and decoration of the friary buildings. It would be misleading to talk of a ‘statistically meaningful sample’ in what is essentially an art-historical exercise, but a sample of about thirty items (the majority of which are window fragments) has proved useful in answering the above points (Table 14). The tradition of art-historical and archaeological study of medieval architecture means that several important pieces of friary architecture that were discovered in the early twentieth century were preserved. A pillar and an arch from the undercroft of the late thirteenth-century chapter house at Black Friars survive, the former in the new Dominican priory in Belsize Park (London) and the latter in the wooded garden of the Selsdon Park Hotel in Croydon (London and Surrey).
Previous research on agriculture in the American Southwest focuses overwhelmingly on archaeological survey methods to discern surface agricultural features, which, in combination with climatological, geological, and geographical variables, are used to create models about agricultural productivity in the past. However, with few exceptions, the role of floodplain irrigation and floodwater farming in ancestral Pueblo agriculture is generally downplayed in scholarly discourse. Using a variety of methods, including Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), satellite imagery, pedestrian survey, and supervised classification of remotely sensed imagery, we examine this issue through a consideration of how ancestral Ohkay Owingeh (Tewa) people solved the challenges of arid land farming in the lower Rio Chama watershed of New Mexico during the Classic period (A.D. 1350–1598). Based on acreage estimates, our results indicate that runoff and rainwater fields in terrace environments would have been insufficient to supply the nutritional needs of an ancestral Tewa population exceeding 10,000 individuals. Based on these observations, we present a case for the substantial role of subsistence agriculture in the floodplain of the Rio Chama and its associated tributaries.
A major goal of biological classification is to provide a system that conveys phylogenetic relationships while facilitating lucid communication among researchers. Phylogenetic taxonomy is a useful framework for defining clades and delineating their taxonomic content according to well-supported phylogenetic hypotheses. The Crinoidea (Echinodermata) is one of the five major clades of living echinoderms and has a rich fossil record spanning nearly a half billion years. Using principles of phylogenetic taxonomy and recent phylogenetic analyses, we provide the first phylogeny-based definition for the Clade Crinoidea and its constituent subclades. A series of stem- and node-based definitions are provided for all major taxa traditionally recognized within the Crinoidea, including the Camerata, Disparida, Hybocrinida, Cladida, Flexibilia, and Articulata. Following recommendations proposed in recent revisions, we recognize several new clades, including the Eucamerata Cole 2017, Porocrinoidea Wright 2017, and Eucladida Wright 2017. In addition, recent phylogenetic analyses support the resurrection of two names previously abandoned in the crinoid taxonomic literature: the Pentacrinoidea Jaekel, 1918 and Inadunata Wachsmuth and Springer, 1885. Last, a phylogenetic perspective is used to inform a comprehensive revision of the traditional rank-based classification. Although an attempt was made to minimize changes to the rank-based system, numerous changes were necessary in some cases to achieve monophyly. These phylogeny-based classifications provide a useful template for paleontologists, biologists, and non-experts alike to better explore evolutionary patterns and processes with fossil and living crinoids.
As a label for a distinct category of life, “living fossil” is controversial. The term has multiple definitions, and it is unclear whether the label can be genuinely used to delimit biodiversity. Even taking a purely phylogenetic perspective in which a proxy for the living fossil is evolutionary distinctness (ED), an inconsistency arises: Does it refer to “dead-end” lineages doomed to extinction or “panchronic” lineages that survive through multiple epochs? Recent tree-growth model studies indicate that speciation rates must have been unequally distributed among species in the past to produce the shape of the tree of life. Although an uneven distribution of speciation rates may create the possibility for a distinct group of living fossil lineages, such a grouping could only be considered genuine if extinction rates also show a consistent pattern, be it indicative of dead-end or panchronic lineages. To determine whether extinction rates also show an unequal distribution, we developed a tree-growth model in which the probability of speciation and extinction is a function of a tip’s ED. We simulated thousands of trees in which the ED function for a tip is randomly and independently determined for speciation and extinction rates. We find that simulations in which the most evolutionarily distinct tips have lower rates of speciation and extinction produce phylogenetic trees closest in shape to empirical trees. This implies that a distinct set of lineages with reduced rates of diversification, indicative of a panchronic definition, is required to create the shape of the tree of life.
Despite the advent of technologies that enhance productivity, the workload of many individuals, including psychologists, remains onerous, provoking burnout and similar complications. Although the circumstances that mitigate or exacerbate the effects of workload have been studied extensively, the antecedents of these demands have not been established definitively. Without this insight, managers cannot be sure of which practices are likely to contain the workload of individuals. To resolve this shortfall, we first pose the possibility that many cognitive biases, heuristics, and illusions may, at least partly, explain elevated levels of workload. Specifically, we demonstrate that 14 established biases, such as the restraint bias and IKEA effect, are likely to prolong work hours and increase the demands on individuals. For example, according to research on the restraint bias, individuals tend to inflate their capacity to inhibit their temptations and, therefore, may overestimate their ability to work extensive hours. Second, we show that all these biases can be divided into four constellations—self-enhancement, stable worldviews, need for closure, and just world—each of which tends to dissipate whenever people experience a sense of meaning in their lives. These observations, therefore, imply that attempts to foster meaning may contain the workload of workers.