The susceptibilities of genetically diverse Canadian spring wheats, Triticum aestivum L. and Triticum durum Desf., to three aphid species, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), and Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), were investigated. Trophic interactions measured as changes in biomass of aphids and wheat plants were used to quantify levels of resistance, components of resistance, and impact of aphids on yield. Plants in field cages were infested with small numbers of aphids for 21 days at heading. These plants were usually more suitable for the development of S. avenae and S. graminum than of R. padi. Partial resistance, measured as seed production by infested plants as a proportion of that by a control, varied from 11% to 59% for different aphid species and wheat classes when all wheat plants were infested at the same stage. Cultivars within wheat classes responded similarly to each of the aphid species. None of the wheat cultivars showed agriculturally effective levels of antibiosis. The specific impact of each aphid species and wheat class varied from 5 to 15 mg of plant biomass lost for each milligram of biomass gained by the aphids. Canadian Western Red Spring wheat had a lower specific impact and therefore was more tolerant to aphids than the other two classes, but not tolerant enough to avoid economic damage at the aphid densities observed. Plants did not compensate for feeding damage after aphid feeding ceased, based on the higher specific impacts observed for mature plants than for plants that were heading. The interactions between aphids and plants show that current economic thresholds probably underestimate the damage caused by cereal aphids to Canadian spring wheat.