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This study investigated the characteristics of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) and their association with current and future cognitive functions.
A cohort of 209 community-dwelling individuals without dementia aged 47–90 years old was recruited for this 3-year study. Participants underwent neuropsychological and clinical assessments annually. Participants were divided into SMCs and non-memory complainers (NMCs) using a single question at baseline and a memory complaints questionnaire following baseline, to evaluate differential patterns of complaints. In addition, comprehensive assessment of memory complaints was undertaken to evaluate whether severity and consistency of complaints differentially predicted cognitive function.
SMC and NMC individuals were significantly different on various features of SMCs. Greater overall severity (but not consistency) of complaints was significantly associated with current and future cognitive functioning.
SMC individuals present distinctive features of memory complaints as compared to NMCs. Further, the severity of complaints was a significant predictor of future cognition. However, SMC did not significantly predict change over time in this sample. These findings warrant further research into the specific features of SMCs that may portend subsequent neuropathological and cognitive changes when screening individuals at increased future risk of dementia.
Depressive symptoms and inflammation are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. We investigated the combined association of these factors with the prediction of CVD and all-cause mortality in a representative cohort of older men and women.
We measured C-reactive protein (CRP) and depressive symptoms in 5328 men and women aged 52–89 years in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Depressive symptoms were measured using the eight-item Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. CRP was analysed from peripheral blood. Mortality was ascertained from national registers and associations with depressive symptoms and inflammation were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models.
We identified 112 CVD related deaths out of 420 all-cause deaths in men and 109 CVD related deaths out of 334 all-cause deaths in women over a mean follow-up of 7.7 years. Men with both depressive symptoms and high CRP (3–20 mg/L) had an increased risk of CVD mortality (hazard ratio; 95% confidence interval: 3.89; 2.04–7.44) and all-cause mortality (2.40; 1.65–3.48) after adjusting for age, socioeconomic variables and health behaviours. This considerably exceeds the risks associated with high CRP alone (CVD 2.43; 1.59–3.71, all-cause 1.49; 1.20–1.84). There was no significant increase in mortality risk associated with depressive symptoms alone in men. In women, neither depressive symptoms or inflammation alone or the combination of both significantly predicted CVD or all-cause mortality.
The combination of depressive symptoms and increased inflammation confers a considerable increase in CVD mortality risk for men. These effects appear to be independent, suggesting an additive role.
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