More than 200 million children aged <5 years fail to reach their full cognitive potential, and children born as twins are particularly at risk. In this article, we review studies that examined differences in the neurodevelopmental outcomes of twins compared to singletons. We searched the Medline database for articles on twins, singletons, neuro, and cognitive development. We also inspected bibliographies of relevant publications to identify related articles from 2011 to 2017. Our search criteria yielded 162 studies, 8 of which met the inclusion criteria. Of the eight studies examined, four were prospective follow-up studies, three were cross-sectional studies, and one was a randomized controlled trial. Five of these studies were carried out in developed countries, and they found no statistically significant difference in neurodevelopmental outcomes among twins and singletons. However, two of the three studies carried out in developing countries found a difference with singletons having significantly higher academic ratings than twins. Studies in which neurodevelopmental outcomes were measured early in life (1–5 years) showed no significant twin–singleton differences, while those in which it was measured later in life showed mixed twin–singleton differences. Overall, these studies may have been underpowered and may not have been optimally designed and implemented. There is need for studies with adequate sample sizes, good design, and optimal measurement of all relevant covariates in order to resolve the conflicting reports in the literature.