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The relationship between schizophrenia and homicide is complex and cannot be reduced to a simple causal link.
The objectives of this study were to describe the characteristics of homicide in Moroccan patients suffering from schizophrenia and to determine the correlated socio-demographic, clinical and toxic variables.
The study included two groups of patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who attended the “Ibn Nafis” university psychiatric hospital of Marrakech in Morocco. The first group was composed of 30 patients hospitalized for homicide in the forensic unit between the first January 2005 and the 31st of August 2015. The second group included 90 patients without any criminal record. These two groups have been matched according to age and gender. Demographic, clinical and therapeutic variables were analyzed and compared between the two groups.
The mean of age in the first group was 37.03 and in the second group was 31.4. No significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the different socio-demographic variables and the age of onset of disease. Significant difference was found between the two groups regarding: personal antecedents of attempt of homicide a (P < 0.003), personal antecedents of attempt of suicide (P < 0.001), a history of previous violence (P = 0.005), untreated psychosis before the act (P < 0.001) poor medication compliance and a low familial support (P < 0.001), antisocial behavior (P < 0.001), addictive behavior (P = 0.007).
Awareness of these factors will allow us to provide improved prevention of violence within schizophrenic subjects.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The aim of this study was to identify social and biological drivers of fetal growth by examining associations with household, preconception, and pregnancy factors in a cohort from Soweto, South Africa. Complete data and ultrasound scans were collected on 519 women between 2013 and 2016 at 6 time points during pregnancy (<14, 14–18, 19–23, 24–28, 29–33 weeks, and 34–38 weeks). Household-level factors, preconception health, baseline body mass index (BMI), and demographic data were collected at the first visit. During pregnancy, gestational weight gain (GWG; kg/week) was calculated. At 24–28 weeks of gestation, oral glucose tolerance test was used to determine gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) status, and hypertension status was characterised. Longitudinal growth in head circumference, abdominal circumference, biparietal diameter, and femur length were modelled using the Superimposition by Translation and Rotation, a shape-invariant model which produces growth curves against gestational age. A priori identified exposure variables were then included in a series of sex-stratified hierarchical regression models for each fetal growth outcome. No household-level factors were associated with fetal growth. Maternal BMI at baseline was positively associated with all outcome parameters in males and females. Both GWG (in males and females) and GDM (in males) were significant positive predictors of abdominal growth. Males showed more responsiveness to abdominal growth, while females were more responsive to linear growth. Thus, fetal growth was largely predicted by maternal biological factors, and sexual dimorphism in the responsiveness of fetal biometry to biological exposures was evident.
Associations between different forms of malnutrition and environmental conditions, including water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), may contribute towards persistently poor child health, growth and cognitive development. Experiencing poor nutrition in utero or during early childhood is furthermore associated with chronic diseases later in life. The primary responsibility for provision of water and sanitation, as a basic service and human right, lies with the State; however, a number of stakeholders are involved. The situation is most critical in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where, in 2015, 311 million people lacked a safe water source, and >70% of SSA populations were living without adequate sanitation. The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review to investigate the state of literature concerned with WASH and its association with nutritional status, and governance in children from birth to 5 years of age in SSA. Articles were sourced from PubMed Central, Science Direct and ProQuest Social Science databases published between 1990 and 2017. The PRISMA Statement was utilised and this systematic review is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017071700). The search terms returned 15,351 articles for screening, with 46 articles included. This is indicative of a limited body of knowledge; however, the number of publications on this topic has been increasing, suggesting burgeoning field of interest. Targeted research on the governance of WASH through the identification of the various role players and stakeholders at various levels, while understanding the policy environment in relation to particular health-related outcomes is imperative to address the burden of child undernutrition.
Adverse birth outcomes and infant undernutrition remain the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Impaired infant growth and development, which often begins during foetal development, may persist during the first 2 years of life and has been associated with higher risks of cardiometabolic diseases. This systematic review assessed the associations between maternal demographic characteristics and household socio-economic status (SES), and preterm birth (PTB), small for gestational age, low birth weight (LBW), stunting, wasting and underweight in children under 2 years of age in SSA countries. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we searched for publications in three electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus and ScienceDirect). Eleven studies on children under 2 years of age, in four SSA regions, published in English between 1990 and 2018, were included. All the studies were observational in design (cross-sectional or cohort studies). Maternal education was the most commonly explored exposure. Most studies (63.3%) focused on undernutrition during the first 2 years of life: LBW, PTB and stunting. Lower maternal education, maternal unemployment and lower household wealth index were the SES factors most commonly associated with adverse birth outcomes and infant undernutrition. Maternal marital status was not associated with any infant outcomes. The definitions of the SES varied, which may explain discrepancies between studies. Nutrition intervention programs in SSA need to promote education and poverty alleviation in women at reproductive age, starting from pre-pregnancy, to optimise infant growth and development and prevent the increase in the prevalence of cardiometabolic diseases.
The chapter reviews the various principles and legal foundations shaping the debate with relation to gene patenting from an Islamic perspective. It analyses the relevant Islamic rules related to the debate including those applicable to property ownership, intellectual property protection and the public interest (Maslaha). As such, the permissibility of gene related activities from an Islamic perspective would be governed by several considerations including its objectives (Maqasid), the public interest considerations, and the ownership model resulting from these activities. The chapter argues that Islamic principles applicable to the ownership of gene patents are yet to be adequately explored and institutionalised within the Muslim states. The chapter concludes that there is an urgent need for legal reform in this field in Islamic countries.
Early-life environmental and nutritional exposures are considered to contribute to the differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden. Among sub-Saharan African populations, the association between markers of early-life exposures such as leg length and sitting height and CVD risk is yet to be investigated. This study assessed the association between leg length, sitting height, and estimated 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk among Ghanaian-born populations in Europe and Ghana. We constructed sex-specific quintiles for sitting height and leg length for 3250 participants aged 40–70 years (mean age 52 years; men 39.6%; women 60.4%) in the cross-sectional multicenter Research on Diabetes and Obesity among African Migrants study. Ten-year risk of ASCVD was estimated using the Pooled Cohort Equations; risk ≥7.5% was defined as “elevated” CVD risk. Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated to determine the associations between sitting height, leg length, and estimated 10-year ASCVD risk. For both men and women, mean sitting height and leg length were highest in Europe and lowest in rural Ghana. Sitting height was inversely associated with 10-year ASCVD risk among all women (PR for 1 standard deviation increase of sitting height: 0.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.67, 0.85). Among men, an inverse association between sitting height and 10-year ASCVD risk was significant on adjustment for study site, adult, and parental education but attenuated when further adjusted for height. No association was found between leg length and estimated 10-year ASCVD risk. Early-life and childhood exposures that influence sitting height could be the important determinants of ASCVD risk in this adult population.
This study provides a comparative analysis of the dormancy and germination mechanisms of the indehiscent fruits of hoary cress (Lepidium draba L.) and hairy whitetop (Lepidium appelianum Al-Shehbaz), two invasive weeds of the Brassicaceae. Germination assays comparing isolated seeds (manually removed from the fruits) and intact indehiscent fruits showed that the isolated seeds are nondormant and provided full germination for both species. In contrast to this, the species differed in the germination properties of their indehiscent fruits, in that L. appelianum fruits were nondormant, while the L. draba fruit coat (pericarp) conferred a coat-imposed dormancy. The pericarp of L. draba fresh fruit was water permeable, and neither mechanical scarification nor surface sterilization affected germination, supporting the concept that pericarp-mediated dormancy was not due to water impermeability or mechanical constraint. Washing of L. draba fruits with water, afterripening (dry storage), and treatment with gibberellin (GA) stimulated the germination of this species, all of which are indicative of physiological dormancy. Analyses of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and GA levels combined with treatment experiments with wash water from fresh and afterripened L. draba pericarps and with ABA dose–response quantification of germination revealed that ABA is a key component of a pericarp-mediated chemical dormancy in this species. Consistent with this, pericarp ABA levels decreased during afterripening and upon fruit washing, and isolated fresh or afterripened seeds did not differ in their ABA sensitivities. The possible roles of the ABA-mediated pericarp dormancy for the germination ecophysiology and weed management of these species are discussed.
An effective way to reduce the impact of cement production on the environment is to use supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) as a partial substitution to cement. In addition to the reduction in cost and energy saving, the use of SCM in cement for the manufacture of mortar and concrete offers technical advantages. In this paper, cement was partially substituted by fines obtained from crushed recycled bricks recovered from a brick plant. The level of substitution was either 0%, 5%, 10% or 15% by weight of cement. The results show that cement substitution by brick fines resulted in a slight loss of workability with the increase of the substitution rate. Substitutions rates of 5% and 10% produced at long-term comparable strength as control mortars. The differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) results show cement hydration improved significantly with different rates of substitutions at 28 and 180 days of age.
In Tunisia and other North African countries, there is a lack of knowledge about parasite biodiversity within threatened wild ruminants and there are not any studies on their gastrointestinal nematodes. Thus the aim of this study was to identify gastrointestinal fauna in the faecal samples of Tunisian wild ruminants. A total of 262 faecal samples were collected from domestic sheep and goat, and wild ruminants (Addax, Barbary sheep, Barbary red deer, Dorcas gazelle, Slender-horned gazelle and Scimitar-horned Oryx) living in protected areas. Samples were examined with floatation (saturated sodium chloride solution), polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the second internal transcribed spacer region of the rDNA. Microscopic analysis allowed the identification of only Nematodirus genus or molecular tools allowed a first identification of five gastrointestinal nematode species in North African wild ruminants: Chabertia ovina (1.6%), Camelostrongylus mentulatus (1.6%), Marshallagia marshalli (4.7%), Nematodirus helvetianus (62.5%) and Nematodirus spathiger (29.7%). This study reported the first records of C. mentulatus and M. marshalli in Addax and of M. marshalli in Dorcas gazelle and it was the first reported record of N. helvetianus and M. marshalli in Tunisia.
The Livingstone's fruit bat Pteropus livingstonii is endemic to the small islands of Anjouan and Mohéli in the Comoros archipelago, Indian Ocean. The species is under threat from anthropogenic pressure on the little that remains of its forest habitat, now restricted to the islands’ upper elevations and steepest slopes. We report the results of the most comprehensive survey of this species to date, and present recommendations for ongoing field conservation efforts and monitoring. Morning counts were conducted at roost sites in the wet and dry seasons during 2011–2013. Habitat structure around the roosting sites was characterized and roost numbers compared, to investigate the potential effect of habitat loss and degradation. We estimate the population to comprise c. 1,260 individuals distributed across 21 roosts on the two islands. All occupied roosting sites were restricted to a narrow altitudinal range, and roosting populations in agroforestry areas were smaller than those found in degraded and undisturbed forest. Only one of the 16 roosts on Anjouan was found in undisturbed, old-growth forest with no nearby signs of clearance for agriculture or landslides following tree-felling upslope. Following a suspected severe population decline as a result of widespread and long-term forest loss Livingstone's fruit bat has been recategorized as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List.
Owing to nutritional transition in Cameroon, one in two adults is overweight and one in five is obese, and 8·1 % of children are overweight and 2·1 % are obese. Given this phenomenon, dietary intake assessment is needed to establish appropriate preventive nutrition-sensitive strategies. Our aim was to develop and test the validity of two food portion photograph books (FPPB) to be used as visual aids for adults and children taking part in a 24-h dietary recall. To design FPPB, interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken with women to obtain consensus on the local categorisation of foods. For each cooked and weighed food, three photographs of the average small, medium and large serving portion sizes were taken, and four intermediary portion sizes were calculated. To validate the FPPB, a sample of adults (361) and children (224) were asked, at meal times, to self-serve a food portion prepared in the household and the portion sizes were weighed; 24 h after the measurement, the same subjects were shown the appropriate FPPB and were asked to indicate the food and the portion they consumed. In adults, of the 821 portions tested, 77 % were accurately estimated, whereas in children 74 % of the 556 portions tested were accurately estimated. For both groups, the small- and medium-sized portions were frequently selected and accurately estimated (>70 %). Our findings suggest that the adult and children’s FPPB can be used in Cameroon to estimate food portion sizes, and thus nutritional intake in the frame of the 24-h dietary recall.
This article documents the work of Islamic charities and NGOs from diverse backgrounds to develop sets of principles guiding their humanitarian and charitable work, in the framework of the dialogue and cooperation among Islamic NGOs and charities as well as between Islamic and Western humanitarian agencies. The authors look at draft documents that resulted from these processes, and the way these relate to the core principles of humanitarian action. They further follow how the dialogue and cooperation between humanitarian organizations from different backgrounds and origins has influenced the orientation of this debate on humanitarian principles from theory and identity to concrete and shared challenges and concerns.
This paper studies the effect of joint flexibility on the dynamic performance of a serial spatial robot arm of rigid links. Three models are developed in this paper. The first and the third models are developed using the multibody dynamics approach, while the second using the classical robotics approach. A numerical algorithm and an experimental test-rig are developed to test the final model. The links' inertial parameters are estimated numerically. Empirical formulae with assumption models are used to estimate the flexibility coefficients. The simulation results show that the joint damping is a major source of inaccuracies, causing trajectory error without a proper feedback controller.
The formerly widespread but now Vulnerable dorcas gazelle Gazella dorcas has declined markedly during the last 2 decades. The semi-captive population in M'Sabih Talaa Reserve, west-central Morocco, is genetically distinct and may be the last remnant of the Moroccan dorcas gazelle G. dorcas massaesyla. The last estimate of the size of this population was c. 200, in 1996. To assess the current population we used line-transect distance sampling to survey this population over five seasons from April 2008 to August 2009. The estimated population declined from 113 to 87 individuals from April to November 2008, increased to 111 in February 2009 (primarily because of recruitment), declined to 99 from February to April 2009, and to 95 by August 2009. These results indicate a decline of nearly 50% in < 15 years. The main conservation actions required for this subspecies are the suppression of poaching and feral dogs, the creation of other reserves to receive dorcas gazelles from M'Sabih Talaa (to avoid loss of the single population from a catastrophic event), and the implementation of a genetic management programme.
Study the profile of behavior and intelligence of children with anemia and their possible association to the hematological parameters.
Fifty-eight children (42 anemic; 16 controls), matched by age, sex, and culture with the patients, were subjected to both behavioral and IQ testing using Revised Behavior Problem Checklist (RBPCL) and Wechsler intelligence scale for children-revised and hematological laboratory evaluation
After controlling for age, sex and culture, the mean IQ was lower in the iron deficiency group than both thalassemic and control groups (P<.000). The mean scores of conduct disorder, socialized aggression, and anxiety withdrawal of RBPCL were higher in thalassemic group while the mean scores of motor excess and attention problems score were higher in the iron deficiency group. Regression analysis showed that hemoglobin concentration in gram/dl was the predictor of IQ in both anemic group and for attention problems in iron deficiency group while the mean corpuscular volume was the predictor of motor excess score in iron deficiency group. Other associations were not statistically significant.
Behavior problems and low intelligence were significantly high among anemic children. Their association with the hematological parameters varies according to the type of behavior and the type of anemia. These results cannot exclude the role of other factors in shaping the profile of behavior and IQ.
In recent decades, problems related to the squeeze of fluid films in the presence of a
porous medium draw attention of researchers and are the subject of many applied studies
for industry and biomechanics. Our concerns in this paper are the numerical simulation of
the viscous shear stresses effects on the fluid film characteristics between two discs
with one porous. This study is based on the coupling, at the fluid film-porous disc
interface, of the Darcy-Brinkman equations in the porous medium and the modified Reynolds
equation describing the flow in the fluid film. The system of equations obtained is
discretized by the means of finite differences method and solved numerically using the
technique of Successive Over-Relaxation (SOR). The results show that the viscous shear
effects increase the radial and the axial fluid film velocities as well as the squeeze
film velocity but decrease the response time. Moreover, these effects are enlarged for
smaller viscous shear parameter and for smaller fluid film thickness.
Genetic diversity of loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, nesting on the Kuriat Islands, the most important Tunisian nesting beach (central Mediterranean), was investigated using both nuclear and mitochondrial markers. Allozyme electrophoresis of 63 hatchlings from four different clutches showed a low genetic diversity. The genotypic composition of two clutches did not match Mendelian expectations suggesting the occurrence of multiple paternity. The analysis of 380 bp of the mitochondrial DNA control region revealed no genetic variability. Only one haplotype was described in our sample (N = 16), which corresponds to the sequence of the most common haplotype found on the Mediterranean nesting beaches (CC-A2). The low genetic diversity detected by both mitochondrial and allozyme markers is discussed taking into account available data about past and present situations of loggerhead nesting activity in this site. Adequate conservation measures should be urgently taken to protect the nesting population in this area.