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Positron annihilation and electron spin resonance (ESR) have been used to study defects introduced by lMeV electron irradiation in n-type cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) epitaxially grown on Si by chemical vapor deposition. Positron annihilation measurements by using variable-energy positron beams indicated the narrowing of the Doppler-broadened energy spectrum of annihilation gamma-rays and the decrease in the effective diffusion length of positrons with increasing the electron fluence. These results show the formation of vacancy-type defects in 3C-SiC. An ESR spectrum labeled T1, which has an isotropie g-value of 2.0029±0.0001, was observed in electron irradiated 3C-SiC. The T1 spectrum is interpreted by hyperfine interactions of paramagnetic electrons with 13C at four carbon sites and 29Si at twelve silicon sites, leads that the Tl center results from a point defect at a silicon sublattice site. The production rate of the Tl center was in good agreement with the carrier removal rate, indicating that the Tl center captures an electron from the conduction band. All these results are accounted for by the introduction of negatively charged vacancies at silicon sublattice sites in 3C-SiC by the irradiation.
Growth and characterization of p-type 4H-SiC epitaxial layers grown on (11-20) substrates are reported. P-type 4H-SiC epilayers with smooth surface morphology have been grown on (11-20) substrates by low-pressure, hot-wall type CVD with SiH4–C3H8–H2–TMA system. The doping concentration can be controlled in the range from about 1×1016cm−3 to 1×1019cm−3. Anisotropy of the crystalline quality is observed by x-ray diffraction measurement. P-type epilayers, in which near band-gap emissions are dominated and D-A pair peak is not observed, are obtained. Hole mobility of (11-20) epilayers is smaller than that of (0001) epilayers probably due to the lack of crystalline quality compared to (0001) epilayers. The results of both low-temperature photoluminescence and the temperature dependence of Hall effect measurements indicate that the boron concentration as undoped impurity in (11-20) epilayer is lower than that of (0001) epilayer. This may be caused by the smaller incorporation efficiency of boron into (11-20) epilayer than that of (0001) epilayer.
We investigated the optical, electrical and structural properties of the layer which was implanted with sulfur ion(S+) in 4H-SiC. By using the high temperature ion implantation technique more less residual defects were observed compared with the room temperature ion implantation by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and channeling(RBS-channeling). After annealing at 1700°C there was no significant difference between the implanted sample and virgin sample in crystallinity within the detection limit of RBS-channeling. From the result of low temperature photoluminescence(LTPL) we could see the photoluminescences, so-called D1 and D2center, originating in the defects formed by ion implantation and post-annealing(∼1700°C) processes and confirmed that their intensities decreased with the increasing of the total dose of S+. The result of Hall effect measurement suggested that the conduction type of S+-implanted layer is n-type and their activation energies were 275meV and 410meV by the fitting of neutrality equation assuming the two activation energies for the hexagonal and cubic lattice sites in 4H-SiC.
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