To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The ‘extreme male brain’ theory suggests that autism spectrum disorder
(ASD) is an extreme variant of male intelligence. However, somewhat
paradoxically, many individuals with ASD display androgynous physical
features regardless of gender.
To assess physical measures, supposedly related to androgen influence, in
adults with and without ASD.
Serum hormone levels, anthropometry, the ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length
(2D:4D) and psychiatric symptomatology were measured in 50 adults with
high-functioning ASD and age- and gender-matched neurotypical controls.
Photographs of face and body, as well as voice recordings, were obtained
and assessed with respect to gender coherence, blindly and independently,
by eight assessors.
Women with ASD had higher total and bioactive testosterone levels, less
feminine facial features and a larger head circumference than female
controls. Men in the ASD group were assessed as having less masculine
body characteristics and voice quality, and displayed higher (i.e. less
masculine) 2D:4D ratios, but similar testosterone levels to controls.
Androgynous facial features correlated strongly and positively with
autistic traits measured with the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in the total
sample. In males and females with ASD dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate did
not decrease with age, in contrast to the control group.
Women with ASD had elevated testosterone levels and several masculinised
characteristics compared with controls, whereas men with ASD displayed
several feminised characteristics. Our findings suggest that ASD, rather
than being characterised by masculinisation in both genders, may
constitute a gender defiant disorder.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.