Nanorods/nanoparticles TiO2 with mesoporous structure were synthesized by hydrothermal method at 150 °C for 20 h. The samples characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, SAED, HRTEM, and BET surface area. The nanorods had diameter about 10-20 nm and the lengths of 100-200 nm, the nanoparticles had diameter about 5-10 nm. The prepared material had average pore diameter about 7-12 nm. The BET surface area and pore volume of the sample are about 203 m2/g and 0.655 cm3/g, respectively. The nanorods/nanoparticles TiO2 with mesoporous structure showed higher photocatalytic activity (I3
− concentration) than the nanorods TiO2, nanofibers TiO2, mesoporous TiO2, and commercial TiO2 (ST-01, P-25, JRC-01, and JRC-03). The solar energy conversion efficiency (η) of the cell using nanorods/nanoparticles TiO2 with mesoporous structure was about 7.12 % with Jsc of 13.97 mA/cm2, Voc of 0.73 V and ff of 0.70; while η of the cell using P-25 reached 5.82 % with Jsc of 12.74 mA/cm2, Voc of 0.704 V and ff of 0.649.