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The chapter presents an investigation into the Presocratic background of soul theories, more specifically, the relationship between fire and soul in Empedocles. Trépanier argues that Empedocles fragment B 9 does not give us a positive account of fire as soul, but targets a rival Presocratic account of fire as soul.
Despite surveillance, the Quebec Healthcare-Associated Infections Surveillance Program saw no improvement in vascular access–associated bloodstream infections in hemodialysis (HD). We aimed to determine the infection control measures recommended and implemented in Quebec’s HD units, compliance of local protocols to infection control practice guidelines, and reasons behind the low prevalence of arteriovenous fistulas.
An online survey was elaborated on the basis of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines. The questionnaire was validated (construct, content, face validity, and reliability) and sent to all HD units in Quebec (n = 40). Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, linear regression, and Poisson regression.
Thirty-seven (93%) of 40 HD units participated. Thirty (94%) of the 32 centers where central catheters are inserted have written insertion protocols. Compliance with practice guidelines is good, except for full-body draping during catheter insertion (79%) and ointment use at insertion site (3%). Prevention measures for catheter maintenance are in accordance with guidelines, except for skin disinfection with at least 0.5% chlorhexidine and 70% alcohol (67% compliance) and regular antiseptic ointment use at the insertion site (3%). Before fistula cannulation, skin preparation is suboptimal; forearm hygiene is performed in only 61% of cases. Several factors explain the low rate of fistulas, including patient preference (69%) and lack of surgical resources (39%; P = .01).
Improvement in standardization of care according to practice guidelines is necessary. Fistula rate could be increased by improving access to surgical resources and patient education. Strategies are now being elaborated to address these findings.
Les autres religions, comme les païennes, sont plus populaires, car elles sont en exterieur; mais elles ne sont pas pour les gens habiles. Une religion purement intellectuelle serait plus proportionnée aux habiles; mais elle ne servirait pas au peuple.
Blaise Pascal, Pensées no. 252
Philosophers stretch the meaning of words until they retain scarcely anything of their original sense; by calling ‘God’ some vague abstraction which they have created for themselves, they pose as deists, as believers, before the world; they may even pride themselves on having attained a purer and higher idea of God, although their god is nothing but an insubstantial shadow and no longer the mighty personality of religious doctrine.
Sigmund Freud, The Future of an Illusion
The present chapter does not survey the whole of Greek theology, or even all of early Greek theology. Rather, in keeping with this book's theme of ‘identities and transformations’, I want to ask: how much of the Olympians do the first Greek philosophers retain in their world-systems? The answer, of course, is not straightforward, for reasons it will be the purpose of this chapter to explore.