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To explore whether and how group cognitive-behavioural therapy (GCBT) plus medication differs from medication alone for the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD).
Hundred and seventy patients were randomly assigned to the GCBT plus duloxetine (n=89) or duloxetine group (n=81). The primary outcomes were Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) response and remission rates. The explorative secondary measures included score reductions from baseline in the HAMA total, psychic, and somatic anxiety subscales (HAMA-PA, HAMA-SA), the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Severity Subscale of Clinical Global Impression Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 4-week, 8-week, and 3-month follow-up.
At 4 weeks, HAMA response (GCBT group 57.0% vs. control group 24.4%, p=0.000, Cohen’s d=0.90) and remission rates (GCBT group 21.5% vs. control group 6.2%, p=0.004; d=0.51), and most secondary outcomes (all p<0.05, d=0.36−0.77) showed that the combined therapy was superior. At 8 weeks, all the primary and secondary significant differences found at 4 weeks were maintained with smaller effect sizes (p<0.05, d=0.32−0.48). At 3-month follow-up, the combined therapy was only significantly superior in the HAMA total (p<0.045, d=0.43) and HAMA-PA score reductions (p<0.001, d=0.77). Logistic regression showed superiority of the combined therapy for HAMA response rates [odds ratio (OR)=2.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02−4.42, p=0.04] and remission rates (OR=2.80, 95% CI 1.27−6.16, p=0.01).
Compared with duloxetine alone, GCBT plus duloxetine showed significant treatment response for GAD over a shorter period of time, particularly for psychic anxiety symptoms, which may suggest that GCBT was effective in changing cognitive style.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have consistently revealed that a variant of microRNA 137 (MIR137) shows a quite significant association with schizophrenia. Identifying the network of genes regulated by MIR137 could provide insights into the biological processes underlying schizophrenia. In addition, DLPFC functional connectivity, a robust correlate of MIR137, may provide plausible endophenotypes. However, the regulatory role of the MIR137 gene network in the disrupted functional connectivity remains unclear. Here, we tested the effects of the MIR137 regulated genes on the risk for schizophrenia and DLPFC functional connectivity.
To evaluate the additive effects of the MIR137 regulated genes (N = 1274), we calculated a MIR137 polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia and tested its association with the risk for schizophrenia in the genomic data of a Han Chinese population that included schizophrenia patients (N = 589) and normal controls (N = 575). We then investigated the association between MIR137 PRS and DLPFC functional connectivity in two independent young healthy cohorts (N = 356 and N = 314).
We found that the MIR137 PRS successfully captured the differences in genetic structure between the patients and controls, but the single gene MIR137 did not. We then consistently found that a higher MIR137 PRS was correlated with lower functional connectivities between the DLPFC and both the superior parietal cortex and the inferior temporal cortex in two independent cohorts.
The findings suggested that these two functional connectivities of the DLPFC could be important endophenotypes linking the MIR137-regulated genetic structure to schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with high heritability and polygenic inheritance. Multimodal neuroimaging studies have also indicated that abnormalities of brain structure and function are a plausible neurobiological characterisation of schizophrenia. However, the polygenic effects of schizophrenia on these imaging endophenotypes have not yet been fully elucidated.
To investigate the effects of polygenic risk for schizophrenia on the brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity, which are disrupted in schizophrenia.
Genomic and neuroimaging data from a large sample of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia (N = 509) and healthy controls (N = 502) were included in this study. We examined grey matter volume and functional connectivity via structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Using the data from a recent meta-analysis of a genome-wide association study that comprised a large number of Chinese people, we calculated a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each participant.
The imaging genetic analysis revealed that the individual PGRS showed a significantly negative correlation with the hippocampal grey matter volume and hippocampus–medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity, both of which were lower in the people with schizophrenia than in the controls. We also found that the observed neuroimaging measures showed weak but similar changes in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.
These findings suggested that genetically influenced brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity may provide important clues for understanding the pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia and for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia.
In this work, corrosion-resistant fluoridated Ca–Mg–P composite coatings were prepared on magnesium alloys via a hydrothermal assisted sol–gel process. All these coatings derived from Coating Sols with different F− concentrations are composed of fluoridated hydroxyapatite, magnesium hydroxide, and dittmarite. When F− concentration of Coating Sol is 0.03 M, the coating exhibited uniform and dense surface, and its thickness reached 32 μm, thus possessing a high charge transfer resistance of 312 ± 12.69 kΩ cm2 in simulated body fluid (SBF). Immersion test in SBF showed that this coating could quickly induce the formation of the mineralized layer, implying relatively high bioactivity. After 49 days of immersion, the original composite coating and newly formed mineralized layer reached 60 μm in thickness, providing effective long-term protection for magnesium alloys. These attractive results indicate that this fluoridated Ca–Mg–P composite coating is a promising protective coating on biodegradable magnesium and magnesium alloy implants for orthopaedic applications.
Late Carboniferous magmatism in the Chinese Altai provides an important view of geodynamic processes active during crustal growth in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). In this study, five representative peraluminous granite plutons from the Chinese Altai were selected for systematic geochronological, geochemical and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic analyses (Table 1). These granites were emplaced between 449 and 327 Ma in an active subduction zone, and have moderate to high SiO2 (66.54–76.13 wt%), moderate Na2O+K2O (6.27–7.66 wt%), and high Al2O3 contents (12.43–16.18 wt%). All granite samples in this study showed significant decoupling of the Nd and Hf isotope systems. Results show negative εNd(t) values (−3.3 to −0.9), and predominantly positive εHf(t) values (+0.24 to +8.01, n=57) except for a few negative εHf(t) values (−7.44 to −0.03, n=9), high Mg# values (28.69–53.33), high Nd/Hf ratios (4.26–43.57), and enrichment of large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs; e.g. Pb, Th, and U), suggesting that the granites were derived from the partial melting of oceanic sediments and the associated mantle wedge, with fractionation of plagioclase, K-feldspar and biotite. In situ zircon Hf isotopic analyses yield negative εHf(t) values from −30.6 to −13.7 for the zircon xenocrysts. The U–Pb ages and Hf isotopic ratios of these zircon xenocrysts were probably inherited from oceanic sediments. Zircon saturation temperatures suggest that these peraluminous granites were emplaced at 537–765°C. We propose that: (1) the Nd isotopic system more faithfully reflects the source of peraluminous magmas in the Chinese Altai than the Hf isotopic system, and (2) the oceanic sediment recycling was an important process during continental growth in the CAOB.
The object of the present investigations was to evaluate the effect of flash butt welding parameters on microstructures and mechanical properties of HSLA 590CL welded joints in wheel rims by adjusting welding parameters separately. The amount of Widmanstatten ferrites and bainite in the weld metal, and grain size were observed with the adjustment of welding parameters. The tensile strength of welded joints met the strength requirement of wheel rims steels, but the tensile strength and tensile fracture were different in different welding parameters. Micro-hardness distributions of welded joints in different welding parameters were similar, that is the maximum micro-hardness occurred in the weld and micro-hardness decreased from the weld to base metal. A certain degree of softening phenomenon was found in the heat affected zone (HAZ), which should result from the heat input in the flash butt welding. Two failure mechanisms of wheel rims in the expanding process were investigated. The first type fractured at the HAZ and showed ductile fracture characteristics, the crack initiation located at the thinning location. The second type fractured at the weld and showed brittle fracture characteristics.
In this paper, an asymmetric coplanar strip (ACS)-fed quad-band monopole antenna for the global positioning system (GPS), wireless local area network (WLAN), and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) applications is proposed. It is composed of an F-shaped monopole and a partial ground plane, which are both printed on one side of a low-cost FR4 substrate with a compact volume of 40 × 20 × 1.6 mm3. By cutting an open-ended Γ-shaped slot into the F-shaped monopole, four distinct resonant modes are successfully generated. The design process, especially the geometrical configuration of the critical Γ-shaped slot is studied in detail. The proposed antenna has been fabricated and experimental results show that the −10 dB impedance bandwidth can fully cover the 1.575-GHz GPS (1.57–1.59 GHz), 2.4/5.2/5.8-GHz WLAN (2.4–2.485, 5.15–5.35, and 5.725–5.825 GHz), and 2.5/3.5/5.5-GHz WiMAX (2.50–2.69, 3.30–3.70, and 5.25–5.85 GHz) applications with nearly omni-directional radiation patterns and satisfactory gains.
To investigate the potential influence of dietary Se intake on mortality among Chinese populations.
We prospectively evaluated all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality risks associated with dietary Se intake in participants of the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS) and the Shanghai Men’s Health study (SMHS). Dietary Se intake was assessed by validated FFQ during in-person interviews. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI.
Urban city in China.
Chinese adults (n 133 957).
During an average follow-up of 13·90 years in the SWHS and 8·37 years in the SMHS, 5749 women and 4217 men died. The mean estimated dietary Se intake was 45·48 μg/d for women and 51·34 μg/d for men, respectively. Dietary Se intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality and CVD mortality in both women and men, with respective HR for the highest compared with the lowest quintile being 0·79 (95 % CI 0·71, 0·88; Ptrend<0·0001) and 0·80 (95 % CI 0·66, 0·98; Ptrend=0·0268) for women, and 0·79 (95 % CI 0·70, 0·89; Ptrend=0·0001) and 0·66 (95 % CI 0·54, 0·82; Ptrend=0·0002) for men. No significant associations were observed for cancer mortality in both women and men. Results were similar in subgroup and sensitivity analyses.
Dietary Se intake was inversely associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both sexes, but not cancer mortality.
Facilitated by recent establishment of terrestrial networks and satellite constellations of Automatic Identification System (AIS) receivers, ship trajectories are becoming increasingly available and the size of recorded trajectories is getting larger. Large sets of trajectories create problems of storing, transmitting and processing data. Using appropriate methods, an accurate representation of the original trajectories can be obtained by compressing redundant information, while maintaining the main characteristic elements. In this paper, a new scheme and the implementation of the Douglas-Peucker (DP) algorithm are presented, which can simplify AIS trajectories by extracting characteristic points. As for the simplification threshold, the solo parameter of the DP algorithm, a new AIS-based minimum ship domain evaluation method is proposed and acts as criteria for simplification threshold determination. Finally, a validation is made to examine the effectiveness of the DP simplification algorithm and the rationality of the simplification threshold. The result indicates that the DP algorithm can simplify AIS trajectories effectively; the simplification threshold is scientific and reasonable.
The Third Catalogue of Nearby Stars (CNS3) was analyzed. A study of the stellar luminosity function in the solar neighborhood with CNS3 was described. The luminosity function for main sequence stars derived from CNS3 was compared with that from CNS2 and that based on the method of photometric parallaxes. The results from CNS3 for stars with Mv <15.5 were well defined. Luminosity functions for the giants and A, F, G, K and M type main sequence stars are also given, based on CNS3.
Numerical simulation based on the Euler equation and one-step reaction model is carried out to investigate the process of deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) occurring in a straight duct. The numerical method used includes a high resolution fifth-order weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for spatial discretization, coupled with a third order total variation diminishing Runge-Kutta time stepping method. In particular, effect of energy release on the DDT process is studied. The model parameters used are the heat release at q = 50,30,25,20,15,10 and 5, the specific heat ratio at 1.2, and the activation temperature at Ti = 15, respectively. For all the cases, the initial energy in the spark is about the same compared to the detonation energy at the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state. It is found from the simulation that the DDT occurrence strongly depends on the magnitude of the energy release. The run-up distance of DDT occurrence decreases with the increase of the energy release for q = 50 ~ 20, and increases with the increase of the energy release for q = 20 ~ 5. This phenomenon is found to be in agreement with the analysis of mathematical stability theory. It is suggested that the factors to strengthen the DDT would make the detonation more stable, and vice versa. Finally, it is concluded from the simulations that the interaction of the shock wave and the flame front is the main reason for leading to DDT.
In this paper we report a large-scale developmental study of early productive vocabulary acquisition by 928 Chinese-speaking children aged between 1;0 and 2;6, using the Early Vocabulary Inventory for Mandarin Chinese (Hao, Shu, Xing & Li, 2008). The results show that: (i) social words, especially words for people, are the predominant type of words in Chinese-speaking children's earliest productive vocabulary; (ii) overall, Chinese-speaking children's vocabulary contains greater proportions of nouns than other word categories, especially at the earliest vocabulary stage; and (iii) verbs tend to appear earlier for Chinese-speaking children as compared with English-speaking children at the same levels of vocabulary development. In addition, our study has identified the underlying variables that influence the age of acquisition of words, specifically, the interplay between the conceptual (imageability) and linguistic properties (word frequency, word length, and grammatical category) that jointly shape the development of Mandarin-speaking children's early vocabulary.
Dietary fibre has been linked to lower levels of glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) among diabetes patients. The present study aimed to evaluate the long-term effect of dietary fibre on HbA1c levels among Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2006 and 2011, with the second one being a repeat survey on a sub-sample from the initial one. In both surveys, an in-person interview was conducted to collect information on demographic characteristics and lifestyles following a similar protocol. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated FFQ. Anthropometric measures and biochemical assays were performed at the interview.
Communities in Pudong New Area of Shanghai, China.
Chinese patients (n 934) with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
An inverse association was observed between dietary fibre and glycaemic status indicated by HbA1c level in both surveys, although it was significant only in the first survey. Among 497 patients participating in both surveys, dietary fibre intake at the first survey was inversely associated with uncontrolled glycaemic status at the second survey, with adjusted odds ratios across the tertiles of intake being 1·00, 0·72 (95 % CI 0·43, 1·21) and 0·58 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·99; Ptrend = 0·048). The change in fibre intake was slightly associated with glycaemic status, with each increase in tertile scores of intake linked to a 0·138 % (β = −0·138; 95 % CI −0·002, 0·278) decrease in HbA1c value and a 19 % (OR = 0·81; 95 % CI 0·65, 1·02) reduced risk of uncontrolled glycaemic status at the second survey.
Dietary fibre may have a long-term beneficial effect on HbA1c level among Chinese diabetes patients.
Metal Nickel(Ni) fill becomes the challeng in integrating silicide-last process into CMOS advanced technology with further contact size scaling. In this work, the specific contact resistivity (ρc) of cold titanium(Ti)/Si was investigated by the cross-bridge Kelvin resistor(CBKR) method and compared with that of Ni(Pt)Si/Si. The cold Ti/n+-Si showed comparable contact resistance(ρc∼3x10-8Ω·cm2) to Ni(Pt)Si/ n+-Si, while a larger ρc(7.5x10-1Ω·cm2) for cold Ti formed on B+ doped Si substrates. The cold Ti/Si interface was also discussed. Our results furnish a fresh perspective on the solutions to the metal fill challeng for silicide-last process.
Fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) is a membrane receptor that facilitates long-chain fatty acid uptake. To investigate its role in the regulation of long-chain fatty acid composition in muscle tissue, we studied and compared FAT/CD36 gene expression in muscle tissues of commercial broiler chickens and Chinese local Silky fowls. The results from gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of muscle samples demonstrated that Chinese local Silky fowls had significantly higher (P < 0.05) proportions of linoleic acid (LA) and palmitic acid, lower proportions (P < 0.05) of arachidonic acid (AA) and oleic acid than the commercial broiler chickens. The mRNA expression levels of fatty acid (FA) transporters (FA transport protein-1, membrane FA-binding protein, FAT/CD36 and caveolin-1) in the m. ipsilateral pectoralis and biceps femoris were analyzed by Q-PCR, and FAT/CD36 expression levels showed significant differences between these types of chickens (P < 0.01). Interestingly, the levels of FAT/CD36 expression are positively correlated with LA content (r = 0.567, P < 0.01) but negatively correlated with palmitic acid content (r = −0.568, P < 0.01). Further experiments in the stably transfected Chinese hamster oocytes cells with chicken FAT/CD36 cDNA demonstrated that overexpression of FAT/CD36 improves total FA uptake with a significant increase in the proportion of LA and AA, and a decreased proportion of palmitic acid. These results suggest that chicken FAT/CD36 may selectively transport LA and AA, which may lead to the higher LA deposition in muscle tissue.
Objective: Functional imaging studies of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have shown an increased activation of posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG) of the brain. The aim of this study was to explore white matter integrity of PCG in PTSD subjects.
Methods: White matter integrity, as determined from fractional anisotropy (FA) value using diffusion tensor imaging, was assessed for PCG in subjects with and without PTSD from a severe mine accident. All subjects were also measured by the PTSD Checklist Civilian Version (PCL-C), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the logical memory subtest and the visual reproduction subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised in China. Sixteen PTSD subjects (8 subjects in each group) in the longitudinal study and 13 PTSD subjects as well as 14 non-PTSD controls in the cross-sectional case–control study were respectively recruited.
Results: In the longitudinal study, subjects with PTSD showed increased FA values in left PCG during the follow-up scan. In the cross-sectional study, FA values in bilateral PCG in PTSD subjects were higher than controls. Within the PTSD group (n = 13), FA values in the left PCG correlated positively with logical memory and negatively with PCL-C intrusion and STAI-trait (STAI-t) subscores. FA values in right PCG correlated negatively with STAI-t and STAI-state subscores.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that alterations of white matter integrity in PCG link to mnemonic and affective processing in PTSD over the long-term follow-up period.
Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is a member of the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which affects body weight, energy homeostasis and food intake in humans and mice. In this study, the Asp298Asn polymorphism of the MC4R gene was investigated in Laiwu, Yorkshire×Laiwu and commercial cross-bred pig populations using polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and the relationship of this mutation with backfat thickness was analysed. The results indicated that only genotype 11 exists in 33 individuals of Laiwu pigs, and three genotypes (11, 12 and 22) were detected in Yorkshire×Laiwu and commercial cross-bred populations. The distributions of allele and genotype frequencies in Yorkshire×Laiwu and commercial cross-bred populations were similar, with the frequency of allele 1 being higher than that of allele 2. In commercial cross-bred pigs, the mean backfat thickness of individuals with genotype 22 was significantly higher than that of individuals with genotypes 12 (P<0.01) and 11 (P<0.05). This study provides evidence that the Asp298Asn polymorphism of the MC4R gene is associated with backfat thickness in commercial cross-bred pigs with Western pigs as parental lines and, therefore, can be used as a DNA marker for breeding in such populations of pigs.
The existence of a sex pheromone of Bradysia odoriphaga Yang and Zhang was investigated prior to the possible development of a semiochemical-based monitoring system or tools for controlling this pest. In laboratory bioassays, live virgin females stimulated 91% of males to attempt to mate. Methylene dichloride washes of whole bodies and excised ovipositors of females attracted males in olfactometer assays. These results indicate the presence of a female sex pheromone in B. odoriphaga, with the ovipositor as its possible source.
A complete chitin deacetylase (CDA) complementary DNA (cDNA) from Mucor racemosus was cloned and sequenced by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification cDNA end (RACE) with gene special conserved primers. The cDNA sequence was submitted to GenBank (DQ538514). The complete cDNA with full-length of 1506 bp contained a 67 bp 5′-untranslated region, an open reading frame of 1344 bp and 95 bp 3′-untranslated region including tailing site AATAAA. The gene encoded a sequence of 448 amino acid residues and consisted of core nucleotides encoding a polysaccharide deacetylase domain covering 32% of the entire sequence. The CDA gene shared sequence homology with those of several fungi. The corresponding homology of the deduced amino acid sequences varied from 21 to 69%. Phylogenetic analysis according to the deduced amino acid sequences matched the classical fungi taxonomy. The three-dimensional structure of this protein was predicted. The protein had a whole CDA functional domain and a polysaccharide deacetylase domain.
Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses were performed with random primer H16 for the B biotype and two non-B populations of Bemisia tabaci collected from Zhejiang (China). The specific sequence fragments containing 446, 390 and 1317 nucleotides were amplified for the B biotype, ZHJ-1, ZHJ-2 populations, respectively. The three specific fragments were cloned and sequenced, and three pairs of SCAR primers were designed according to the sequences determined. With improvement of the conditions of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the specific fragments of B biotype, ZHJ-1 and ZHJ-2 populations, namely 439, 366 and 1238 nucleotides, respectively, were amplified with the sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) primer of the corresponding population, while specific fragments of the other populations of B. tabaci or Trialeurodes vaporariorum could not be amplified.