To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We present the first report of Amblycerus dispar (Sharp) attacking stored almonds [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb] in Argentina. A summarized diagnosis, illustrations, and photographs of the adult and mature larva are provided to facilitate identification. We performed species distribution models for A. dispar and its main host plant Geoffroea decorticans (Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.) Burkart. We include A. dispar into a previous morphological character matrix and conduct a phylogenetic analysis to infer its phylogenetic position. The evolution of host plant associations of the genus Amblycerus is herein re-analyzed. A. dispar and its main host shows high suitability areas especially in central-west Argentina and Chile, whereas for the USA, high suitability areas were found for the south-western which include the area of almond production in this country. Although the presence of A. dispar in the USA region is very unlikely, we recommend some awareness as other bruchines are present in the area. Although A. dispar is unlikely to become an economically important risk, monitoring for early detection is recommended to avoid productivity loss, especially when the native host is nearby cultivated areas. A. dispar is hypothesized to be the sister species of A. schwarzi Kingsolver. The colonization of a Rosaceae species is a novelty for this genus, being host shifts known as an important factor affecting both natural and agricultural systems.
Of the five nominal species in the genus Caranx Lacepède 1801 distributed throughout the Eastern Central Pacific, Caranx caballus and Caranx sexfasciatus are the only two that have formal fish larval descriptions based on diagnostic characteristics (morphology, meristics and pigmentation). In this study, the diagnostic characteristics of three Caranx species larvae were validated using DNA barcoding analysis cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI; 651 bp). For the first time, the morphological taxonomic assignation of C. caballus fish larvae was confirmed using COI gene partial sequences of adults, with a genetic similarity between 99.8–100%. However, molecular evidence demonstrated that fish larvae previously described as C. sexfasciatus had high genetic similarity (99.7–100%) and low genetic distance (<1%) to Caranx caninus adults. An undescribed larval morphotype collected in the present study genetically matched (100%) with COI sequences of C. sexfasciatus adults. The diagnostic characteristics of this new morphotype were a lack of pigmentation in the supraoccipital crest, over the gut, and at the terminal region of the gut. The combination of diagnostic characteristics and DNA barcoding evidence allowed the discrimination and validation of C. caballus, C. caninus and C. sexfasciatus larvae. The diagnostic characteristics and COI sequences of Caranx lugubris and Caranx melampygus larvae, which are also distributed in the Eastern Central Pacific, remain to be investigated.
To assess infectious and thrombotic complications of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in adults.
A 5-year prospective cohort study.
Tertiary-care teaching hospital in Seville, Spain.
Adult patients undergoing PICC insertion.
Catheter-associated bloodstream infection (CABSI) including catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI), primary bacteremia (PB), and upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) were recorded. Independent predictors of complications were assessed by multivariate analysis.
In total, 1,142 PICCs were inserted, with 153,191 catheter days (median, 79). Complications included 66 cases of CABSI (5.78%; 0.43‰ catheter days), 38 cases of CRBSI (3.33%; 0.25‰ catheter days), 28 cases of PB (2.45%; 0.18‰ catheter days), and 23 cases of UEDVT (2.01%; 0.15‰ catheter days). The median times to infection were 24, 41, and 60 days for CRBSI, PB, and UEDVT, respectively. Parenteral nutrition (odds ratio [OR], 3.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77–6.52) and admission to the hematology ward (OR, 4.90; 95% CI, 2.25–10.71) were independently associated with CRBSI and PB, respectively. Admission to the hematology ward (OR, 12.46; 95% CI, 2.49–62.50) or to the oncology ward (OR, 7.89; 95% CI, 1.77–35.16) was independently associated with UEDVT. The crude mortality rate was 24.8%. Only 2 patients died of complications.
PICCs showed a low rate of thrombotic and infectious complications. Compared to PB, CRBSI showed significantly different risk factors, a higher incidence density per catheter days, and a shorter median time to infection. Separate analyses of CRBSI and PB are more specific and clinically useful when analyzing infectious complications.
High-order sub-harmonically injection-locked oscillators have recently been proposed for low phase-noise frequency generation, with carrier-selection capabilities. Though excellent experimental behavior has been demonstrated, the analysis/simulation of these circuits is demanding, due to the high ratio between the oscillation frequency and the frequency of the input source. This work provides an analysis methodology that covers the main aspects of the circuit behavior, including the detection of the locking bands and the prediction of the phase-noise spectral density. Initially, the oscillator in the presence of a multi-harmonic input source is described with a reduced-order envelope-domain formulation, at the oscillation frequency, based on an oscillator-admittance function extracted from harmonic-balance simulations. This allows deriving an expression for the oscillation phase shift with respect to the input source, and the average of this phase shift is shown to evolve continuously in the distinct synchronization bands obtained when varying a tuning voltage. This property can be used to detect the locking bands in circuit-level envelope-domain simulations, which, as shown here, can be done through different Fourier decompositions and sampling rates. The phase noise of the high-order sub-harmonic injection-locked oscillator under an arbitrary periodic input waveform is investigated in detail. The frequency response to the noise sources is described with a semi-analytical formulation, relying on the oscillator-admittance function in injection-locked conditions. The input noise is derived from the timing jitter of the injection source and the phase-noise response is shown to exhibit a low-pass characteristic, which initially follows the up-converted input noise and then the oscillator own noise sources. A method is proposed to identify the key parameters of the derived phase-noise spectrum from envelope-domain simulations. The various analysis methodologies have been applied to a prototype at 2.7 GHz at the sub-harmonic order N = 30 which has been manufactured and measured.
The Sun is our dynamic host star due to its magnetic fields causing plentiful of activity in its atmosphere. From high energetic flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) to lower energetic phenomena such as jets and fibrils. Thus, it is of crucial importance to learn about formation and evolution of solar magnetic fields. These fields cover a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, starting on the larger end with active regions harbouring complex sunspots, via isolated pores, down to the smallest yet resolved elements – so-called magnetic bright points (MBPs). Here, we revisit the various manifestations of solar magnetic fields by the largest European solar telescope in operation, the 1.5-meter GREGOR telescope. We show images from the High-resolution Fast Imager (HiFI) and spectropolarimetric data from the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS). Besides, we outline resolved convective features inside the larger structures – so-called light-bridges occurring on large to mid-sized scales.
Chagas Disease is a zoonosis caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Several high-resolution markers have subdivided T. cruzi taxon into at least seven lineages or Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) (TcI-TcVI and TcBat). Trypanosoma cruzi I is the most diverse and geographically widespread DTU. Recently a TcI genotype related to domestic cycles was proposed and named as TcIDOM. Herein, we combined traditional markers and housekeeping genes and applied a Multispecies Coalescent method to explore intra-TcI relationships, lineage boundaries and genetic diversity in a random set of isolates and DNA sequences retrieved from Genbank from different countries in the Americas. We found further evidence supporting TcIDOM as an independent and emerging genotype of TcI at least in Colombia and Venezuela. We also found evidence of high phylogenetic incongruence between parasite's gene trees (including introgression) and embedded species trees, and a lack of genetic structure among geography and hosts, illustrating the complex dynamics and epidemiology of TcI across the Americas. These findings provide novel insights into T. cruzi systematics and epidemiology and support the need to assess parasite diversity and lineage boundaries through hypothesis testing using different approaches to those traditionally employed, including the Bayesian Multispecies coalescent method.
The UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) has not, to date, developed a fully coherent and robust doctrine on the specific meaning of the obligation of States to achieve the progressive realization of the full content on economic, social and cultural rights "to the maximum available resources." The doctrine of the CESCR is still fragmentary. This argues the “maximum available resources” is a crucial part of economic, social and cultural rights, and that the lack of doctrine is problematic. The chapter will describe the consolidated and emerging elements of the CESCR doctrine on that field and what are the methodological and theoretical elements that are still lacking for having a coherent and robust doctrine. The chapter will propose some academic efforts that might be useful to achieve this more robust doctrine.
Traditional historical literature has stressed a generalised crisis throughout the world in the 17th century. First proposed for Europe with its numerous dynastic, religious and state conflicts, it has now been expanded to include Asia and the Middle East as well. It was also assumed that there was a significant crisis in the Americas, a theme which until recently has dominated the traditional literature. The claim that there was such a crisis was based on a series of classic studies by Earl J. Hamilton, Chaunu and Borah, among others. But new research has challenged this hypothesis and we will examine both these new studies as well as offering our own research findings on this subject.
The anthropogenic modification of natural landscapes, and the consequent changes in the environmental conditions and resources availability at multiple spatial scales can affect complex species interactions involving key-stone species such as bat–parasite interactions. In this study, we aimed to identify the drivers potentially influencing host–bat fly interactions at different spatial scales (at the host, vegetation stand and landscape level), in a tropical anthropogenic landscape. For this purpose, we mist-netted phyllostomid and moormopid bats and collected the bat flies (streblids) parasitizing them in 10 sites representing secondary and old growth forest. In general, the variation in fly communities largely mirrored the variation in bat communities as a result of the high level of specialization characterizing host–bat fly interaction networks. Nevertheless, we observed that: (1) bats roosting dynamics can shape bat–streblid interactions, modulating parasite prevalence and the intensity of infestation; (2) a degraded matrix could favor crowding and consequently the exchange of ectoparasites among bat species, lessening the level of specialization of the interaction networks and promoting novel interactions; and (3) bat–fly interaction can also be shaped by the dilution effect, as a decrease in bat diversity could be associated with a potential increase in the dissemination and prevalence of streblids.
A new flower preserved in amber in sediments of Simojovel de Allende, México, is identified as an extinct member of Staphyleaceae, a family of angiosperms consisting of only three genera (Staphylea, Turpinia and Euscaphis), which has a large and abundant fossil record and is today distributed over the Northern Hemisphere. Staphylea ochoterenae sp. nov. is the first record of a flower for this group, which is small, pedicelled, pentamer, bisexual, with sepals and petals with similar size, dorsifixed anthers and superior ovary. Furthermore, the presence of stamens with pubescent filaments allows close comparison with extant flowers of Staphylea bulmada and S. forresti, species currently growing in Asia. However, their different number of style (one vs. three) and the apparent lack of a floral disc distinguish them from S. ochoterenae. The presence of Staphyleaceae in southern Mexico ca. 23 to 15My ago is evidence of the long history of integration of vegetation in low-latitude North America, in which some lineages, such as Staphylea, could move southwards from high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, as part of the Boreotropical Flora. In Mexico it grew in association with tropical elements, as suggested by the fossil record of the area.
We present the first study of the spatial and temporal dynamics of raptors and large soaring birds from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico. Using systematic migration counts from multiple localities in the southern states of Oaxaca and Chiapas, as well as observations of their flight trajectories during eight consecutive years (2007–2014), we describe the magnitude of these movements, their geographic extent, and the phenology of the most abundant species in both spring and fall seasons. The most abundant species were Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura, Swainson’s Hawk Buteo swainsoni, Broad-winged Hawk Buteo platypterus, Wood Stork Mycteria americana, American White Pelican Pelecanus erythrothynchos, Franklin’s Gull Leucophaeus pipixcan, and American Kestrel Falco sparverius. In spring, the seasonal average magnitude of migration was over 28,000 birds, while in autumn the average was over one million. The aggregated seasonal phenologies recorded illustrate a variety of migration patterns. The inter-annual variation is lower in autumn than in spring. Migrating raptors and other soaring birds did not seem to use any topographical feature as a leading line for their movements in spring, while in autumn they did. We estimated the main axis of spring flights to run along a SE–NW vector, while autumn migration follows a WNW–ESE general trajectory. Our results place the isthmus as one of the five most important sites in the world for raptors and soaring migrants. Sustaining annual migration counts at these sites is of high importance to track substantial portions (> 90%) of the global population of Turkey Vulture and Swainson’s Hawk, as well as over 10% of the global population of Broad-winged Hawk. Autumn migration counts have the potential for long-term population monitoring.
Notoungulates, native South American fossil mammals, have been recently objective of several palaeoecological studies. Ecomorphology and biomechanics of the masticatory apparatus, together with micro and mesowear analyses on tooth enamel, were applied in order to understand their palaeobiology. In particular, the relationship between some dental traits (hypsodonty, occlusal surface area and complexity) and body mass is still poorly understood. These features were measured by means of the hypsodonty index (HI), occlusal surface area (OSA) and tooth area (OTA), enamel crest complexity (ECC) and length (OEL). The relationships between these indices were evaluated in five pan-contemporaneous Santacrucian Notoungulata genera from Patagonia: Adinotherium and Nesodon (Toxodontia), Interatherium, Protypotherium and Hegetotherium (Typotheria). While OSA, OTA and OEL were size dependent and strongly correlated, HI and ECC were size independent. All notoungulates analysed have very hypsodont teeth, indicating high rates of tooth wear in response to an increase of abrasives consumed with the food; their tooth occlusal area and complexity could be related to chewing efforts associated with the toughness of the plants consumed. HI, OSA and ECC were considered useful for palaeoecological reconstructions, but the results presented here show that these three features are integrated as a complex, so should not be evaluated separately.
Dendrochronological studies are limited in tropical regions because not many tree species form annual growth rings. This work reports an evaluation of the dendrochronological potential of tropical ash (Fraxinus uhdei) and its use as a bioindicator of fossil CO2 concentration in urban areas by means of radiocarbon analysis on growth rings. We analyzed a cross-section of a tree that grew during the period 1932–2007 in San Luis Potosí, one of the most industrialized cities in Mexico. The Δ14C values obtained follow the same variation pattern as the calibration curve of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) zone 2 (Hua and Barbetti 2004), with the peak centered in 1964, but they are lower by up to 124′. The high correlation coefficient (r = 0.990, p < 0.001) between the variation patterns indicates that this species does form annual growth rings, and the lower values can be attributed to the 14C dilution caused by fossil CO2 emissions. The magnitude of the Suess effect varied between −6.9% and −0.5%, equivalent to fossil CO2 concentrations ranging between 21.9 and 1.5 ppmv. The Suess effect and fossil CO2 values have significant variations with no apparent monotone increasing trend, suggesting that the CO2 emissions during the studied period have diverse sources. It is concluded that F. uhdei has potential for dendrochronological studies in tropical areas because its growth rings are formed annually and, furthermore, it can be used as a bioindicator of atmospheric 14C variations and fossil CO2 concentration in urban areas.
The Cuban Twin Registry is a nation-wide, prospective, population-based twin registry comprising all zygosity types and ages. It was initiated in 2004 to study genetic and environmental contributions to complex diseases with high morbidity and mortality in the Cuban population. The database contains extensive information from 55,400 twin pairs enrolled in the period 2004–2006. Additionally, 2,600 new multiple births have been included from 2007 to date. In the past 4 years, more than 130 studies have been carried out using the registry with a classical genetic epidemiological approach in which concordance rates for monozygotic and dizygotic twins and heritability of various disease traits were estimated. This article summarizes the history, registry's methodology, recent research findings, and future directions of work.
In this study we present an experiment investigating the reconfiguration process elicited by the task switching paradigm in synaesthesia. We study the time course of the operations involved in the activation of photisms. In the experimental Group, four digit-color synaesthetes alternated between an odd-even task and a color task (to indicate the photism elicited by each digit). In both tasks, the target stimuli were numbers between 1 and 9 written in white. One of the control groups ran the same tasks but this time with colored numbers (Naïve Control Group). The results of these studies showed the expected pattern for the control group in the case of regular shift: a significant task switch cost with an abrupt offset and a cost reduction in long RSI. However for the experimental group, we found switch cost asymmetry in the short RSI and non-significant cost in the long RSI. A second control group performed exactly the same tasks as the experimental group (with white numbers as targets and a second imaginary color task) -Trained Control Group-. We found no cost for this second control group. This means that the cost of mental set reconfiguration between numbers (inducers) and their photisms (concurrent sensations) occurs, that there is a specific cost asymmetry (from photisms to inducers) and that this cost cannot be explained by associative learning. The results are discussed in terms of exogenous and endogenous components of mental set reconfiguration.
We show in this article that it is possible to obtain elemental compositional maps and profiles with atomic-column resolution across an InxGa1−xAs multilayer structure from 5th-order aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) images. The compositional profiles obtained from the analysis of HAADF-STEM images describe accurately the distribution of In in the studied multilayer in good agreement with Muraki's segregation model [Muraki, K., Fukatsu, S., Shiraki, Y. & Ito, R. (1992). Surface segregation of In atoms during molecular beam epitaxy and its influence on the energy levels in InGaAs/GaAs quantums wells. Appl Phys Lett61, 557–559].
The science of extra-solar planets is one of the most rapidly changing areas of astrophysics and since 1995 the number of planets known has increased by almost two orders of magnitude. A combination of ground-based surveys and dedicated space missions has resulted in 560-plus planets being detected, and over 1200 that await confirmation. NASA's Kepler mission has opened up the possibility of discovering Earth-like planets in the habitable zone around some of the 100,000 stars it is surveying during its 3 to 4-year lifetime. The new ESA's Gaia mission is expected to discover thousands of new planets around stars within 200 parsecs of the Sun. The key challenge now is moving on from discovery, important though that remains, to characterisation: what are these planets actually like, and why are they as they are?
In the past ten years, we have learned how to obtain the first spectra of exoplanets using transit transmission and emission spectroscopy. With the high stability of Spitzer, Hubble, and large ground-based telescopes the spectra of bright close-in massive planets can be obtained and species like water vapour, methane, carbon monoxide and dioxide have been detected. With transit science came the first tangible remote sensing of these planetary bodies and so one can start to extrapolate from what has been learnt from Solar System probes to what one might plan to learn about their faraway siblings. As we learn more about the atmospheres, surfaces and near-surfaces of these remote bodies, we will begin to build up a clearer picture of their construction, history and suitability for life.
The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory, EChO, will be the first dedicated mission to investigate the physics and chemistry of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. By characterising spectroscopically more bodies in different environments we will take detailed planetology out of the Solar System and into the Galaxy as a whole.
EChO has now been selected by the European Space Agency to be assessed as one of four M3 mission candidates.
We have analysed very high-quality HARPS and UVES spectra of 95 solar analogs, 24 hosting planets and 71 without detected planets, to search for any possible signature of terrestial planets in the chemical abundances of volatile and refractory elements with respect to the solar abundances.
We demonstrate that stars with and without planets in this sample show similar mean abundance ratios, in particular, a sub-sample of 14 planet-host and 14 “single” solar analogs in the metallicity range 0.14 < [Fe/H] < 0.36. In addition, two of the planetary systems in this sub-sample, containing each of them a super-Earth-like planet with masses in the range ~ 7-11 Earth masses, have different volatile-to-refratory abundance ratios to what would be expected from the presence of a terrestial planets.
Finally, we check that after removing the Galactic chemical evolution effects any possible difference in mean abundances, with respect to solar values, of refratory and volatile elements practically dissappears.