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We report here swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation induced effects on structural and surface properties of III-nitrides. Tensile strained Al(1-x)InxN/GaN Hetero-Structures (HS) were realized using Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Despotion (MOCVD) technique with indium composition as 12%. Ion species and energies are chosen such that electronic energy deposition rates differ significantly in Al(1-x)InxN and are essential for understanding the ion beam interactions at the interfaces. Thus the samples were irradiated with 80 MeV Ni6+ and 100 MeV Ag7+ ions at varied fluence (1×1012 and 3 ×1012 ions/cm2) to alter the structural properties. Under this energy regime, the structural changes in Al(1-x)InxN would occur due to the intense ultrafast excitations of electrons along the ion path. We employed different characterization techniques like High Resolution X- ray Diffraction (HRXRD) and Rutherford back scattering spectrometry (RBS) for composition, thickness and strain. HRXRD and RBS experimental spectra have been fitted with Philip’s epitaxy SIMNRA code, which yields thickness and composition from compound semiconductors. The surface morphology of pristine and irradiated samples is studied and compared by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM).
Scanning Acoustic Microscopy has been used to measure and map the Rayleigh wave velocity and the Surface Skimming Longitudinal wave velocities near a crack tip in a sample of Ti-6AI-4V. X-ray diffraction measurements have been performed to map the stress in the same region of the sample. The differences in the contrast between the two acoustic velocity images and their sensitivity to stress are examined. Similarities between x-ray stress images and acoustic velocity images are discussed.
This paper describes the initial phase of the development of a nondestructive, multisensor approach for detecting, quantifying and monitoring degradation of organic coatings applied to aluminum surfaces. Descriptions of the purposes and chemical compositions of layered coatings used on aircraft structures are provided. The discussion then concentrates on ultrasonic thickness measurements. One is the well-established pulse/echo scanning acoustic microscopy and, as a proposed alternative, continuous acoustic waves measurements with a probe in contact to the sample. Advantages and disadvantages of the two methods and their potential as in field applications are discussed.
Variation in acoustic nonlinearity has been monitored in real time during fatigue, on four dogbone specimens of Ti-6A1-4V, under low cycle fatigue conditions, from the virgin state all the way to fracture. The results of these experiments show that the acoustic nonlinearity undergoes large changes during the fatigue and follows a similar trend for the material under given fatigue test conditions. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examination of the samples with similar composition fatigued to different stages indicates a gradual change in the microstructure and dislocation density, which correlates with the changes in acoustic nonlinearity.
Dissipated heat has been measured by thermographic technique during fatigue experiments on Ti-6AI-4V. Surface temperature of the specimen was found sensitive to the amount of fatigue damage accumulated in the material. An increased heat dissipation due to fatigue can be related to continuous change in the microstructure (increased dislocation density, stacking faults etc.) of the material. A method based on passive thermography can be proposed to monitor damage accumulation in Ti-6Al-4V due to cyclic loading.
Multi quantum wells of InGaAs/InP grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition have been irradiated using swift heavy ions. Irradiation has been performed using 150MeV Ag and 200MeV Au ions. Both as-grown and irradiated samples were subjected to rapid thermal annealing at 500 and 7000C for 60s. As-grown, irradiated and annealed samples were subjected to high resolution x-ray diffraction studies. Both symmetric and asymmetric scans were analyzed. The as-grown and Ag ion irradiated samples show sharp and highly ordered satellite peaks whereas, the Au ion irradiated samples show broad and low intense peaks. The higher order satellite peaks of the annealed samples vanished with increase of annealing temperature from 500 to 7000C, indicating mixing induced interfacial disorder. Annealing of irradiated samples show higher mixing and disorder and no higher order satellite peaks were observed. Negligible strain was observed after high temperature annealing of as grown samples. Strain values calculated from the X-ray studies indicate that the irradiated samples have higher strain which has been reduced upon annealing. This indicates that the annealing induced mixing occurs maintaining the lattice parameter close to that of the substrate. The effect of electronic energy loss for interface mixing has been discussed in detail. The role of incident ion fluence in combination with the electronic energy loss will also be discussed in detail. The results have been compared with the literature and discussed in detail.
Epitaxial AlGaN/GaN layers grown by MBE on SiC substrates were irradiated with 150 MeV Ag ions at a fluence of 5×1012 ions/cm2. AlGaN/GaN MQWs were grown on Sapphire substrate by MOCVD and irradiated with 200 MeV Au8+ ions at a fluence of 5×1011 ions/cm2 . These samples were used to study the effects of SHI on optical properties of AlGaN/GaN based nano structures. RBS/Channelling strain measurements were carried out at off normal axis of irradiated and unirradiated samples. In as grown samples, AlGaN layer is partially relaxed with a small compressive strain. After irradiation this compressive strain increases by 0.22% in AlGaN layer. Incident ion energy dependence of dechannelling parameter shows E1/2 dependence, which corresponds to the dislocations. Defect densities were calculated from the E1/2 graph. As a result of irradiation defect density increased on both GaN and AlGaN layer. Optical properties of AlGaN/GaN MQWs before and after irradiation have been analyzed using PL. This study shows that SHI increase the confinement effects in the MQWs and intensity of the active layer of the MQWs luminescence is increased by one order. This may be due to the induced strain in GaN and AlGaN layers. Some unwanted yellow luminescence has also been introduced by the SHI possibly due the point defects or defect luminescence from the induced dislocations in GaN bulk epitaxial layers. In this study, we present some new results concerning high energy irradiation on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures and MQWs characterized by RBS/Channelling and PL.
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