We present the results of searches for the Austral Rail Rallus antarcticus in Argentine and Chilean Patagonia between January 1998 and February 2006 and from subsequent visits. We surveyed 58 localities and found the rail in 22, which collectively cover approximately 85 km2 of habitat. A maximum of 175 individuals were detected. This poorly known species was rediscovered in 1998; since then, it has been found in 18 additional localities, providing further data on distribution, habitat and seasonal movements. During the searches, we found that the species faces different threats, such as reduction of wetlands due to cattle grazing, burning and abnormal water management, but also the presence of American mink Neovison vison. However, due to the lack of prior information we conclude that the species should be maintained as Vulnerable.