Good sample preparation is essential for acquiring successful electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) patterns in the SEM. Mechanical polishing to obtain the required surface quality with minimal sub-surface defects and deformation that does not interfere with the quality of the diffraction data is, more often than not, an art form. Special polishing techniques, such as low force lapping fixtures, electrochemical-mechanical polishing, and vibratory polishing, have been used to minimize the sub-surface damage, but have not eliminated it. Ion polishing has been used to reduce the damage layer further. However, the commercially available ion systems suffer several drawbacks, including: 1) small area treatment (≤ 1 cm) 2) decreasing beam current density with accelerating voltages, and 3) the inability to process non-conducting samples. Barna and Pecz have shown that at 3 keV with an incident angle of 5° relative to the surface, approximately 25 nm of ion damage occurs in Si and GaAs, but at 250 eV, there is less than 1 nm of amorphization of the surface. They also showed that a glancing angle across the surface is essential for removing topographic features. The ion guns that have been available for ion polishing and ion etching of SEM samples typically cannot operate effectively below 3 keV because of the low current density.