A genealogical and a viability analysis was carried out on the 1559 available registers for the Conservation Nucleus of Brazilian Bergamasca sheep of the University of Brasilia farm in Brazil using the ENDOG and the Vortex programs. To run the ENDOG it was used the registered data and for the Vortex it was used information obtained by a questionnaire answered by the curators of the herds. Of the animals registered, 767 had known parents, with significantly more dams known at each generation. The number of pedigrees known has increased over the generations, with higher registration of parents of sires than dams. The Computed Mean Inbreeding calculated by ENDOG was 0.29 percent and mean average relatedness was 1.52 percent. Mean Generation interval was 3.71 years with this values being lower for sires than dams. The population probability of extinction, calculated by Vortex was 17 percent and the average time to extinction was 59 years. Forty-two additional scenarios were created to determine which factors most threaten these populations which were frequency of catastrophes, lack of animal entrance and adult and lamb mortalities, especially adult female mortality. These results indicate that future breeding plans should include exchange of sires between farms to maintain low inbreeding levels and increase genetic variability and upgrade the management to control the mortality rates of animals.