We used nanoindentation coupled with finite element modeling to determine the mechanical properties of amorphous Si layers formed by self-ion implantation of crystalline Si at approximately 100 K. When the effects of the harder substrate on the response of the layers to indentation were accounted for, the amorphous phase was found to have a Young’s modulus of 136 ± 9 GPa and a hardness of 10.9 ± 0.9 GPa, which were 19% and 10% lower than the corresponding values for crystalline Si. The hardness agrees well with the pressure known to induce a phase transition in amorphous Si to the denser β–Sn-type structure of Si. This transition controls the yielding of amorphous Si under compressive stress during indentation, just as it does in crystalline Si. After annealing 1 h at 500 °C to relax the amorphous structure, the corresponding values increase slightly to 146 ± 9 GPa and 11.6 ± 1.0 GPa. Because hardness and elastic modulus are only moderately reduced with respect to crystalline Si, amorphous Si may be a useful alternative material for components in Si-based microelectromechanical systems if other improved properties are needed, such as increased fracture toughness.