The effects of Bt transgenic cottons (Bt-I expressing cry1Ac and Bt-II expressing cry1Ab and cry2Ab or cry1Ab and cry1Fa) and non-Bt cottons on feeding, oviposition and longevity of adults, and development and survival of Liriomyza trifolii larvae were studied under laboratory conditions; and infestation on four Bt and two non-Bt cotton traits were investigated under field conditions. Laboratory choice and no-choice tests showed that L. trifolii adults were capable of distinguishing between Bt cottons and non-Bt cottons. In a choice test on younger plants (4–5 leaves), the adults were found more often and made more feeding punctures (FP) on non-Bt cottons than on Bt cottons. On older plants (8–9 leaves), adults made the most FP on non-Bt cotton followed by those on Bt-II cottons and the least on Bt-I cotton. The females oviposited more eggs (6.7 eggs per leaf) on non-Bt cotton than on Bt-I (1.7 eggs per leaf) and Bt-II (0.8 eggs per leaf) cottons on younger plants and oviposited similar numbers of eggs (0.7–1.3 eggs per leaf) on non-Bt and Bt cottons on older plants. In a no-choice test, the females also fed more FP on non-Bt cottons than on Bt cottons on both younger and older plants. The females oviposited more eggs (15.6 eggs per leaf) on non-Bt cotton than on Bt-I (8.2 eggs per leaf) and Bt-II (6.5 eggs per leaf) cottons on younger plants and similar numbers of eggs (2.5–3.3 eggs per leaf) on non-Bt and Bt cottons on older plants. Larval and puparial survivals were not different among Bt and non-Bt cottons. The occurrence and damage of leafminers on cottons in the field showed that L. trifolii infested more plants and leaves and had more mines on non-Bt cotton than on Bt cottons.