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In this study, we want to evaluate the efficacy of a preventive weight management training. We hypothesize that this training will reduce weight gain, pathological metabolic parameters and will increase drug compliance and subjective well-being.
69 schizophrenic patients were included in this study, in all patients olanzapine was newly initiated. They were randomly assigned to verum and control group. Patients in the verum group attended the training every second week for 24 weeks. Physical and chemical parameters where measured regularly, and also eating behaviour, physical activity, quality of life, mental state and psychosocial adaptation.
28 patients dropped out during the first 4 weeks of intervention. The data of the remaining 41 patients (verum group N=21, control group N=20) was analysed. During the intervention there was no significant difference between the groups regarding weight-gain. Both groups gained weight slightly (verum group 3.02±4.06kg, control group 2.80±4.84kg). Concerning triglycerides we found an interaction effect of time and group (F(1)=6.697, p=.025), the same was found on the second scale of the questionnaire for eating behaviour (FEV), which measures to what degree eating behaviour is disturbed (F(1)=8,381, p=.013) and on the social functioning scale of the SF-36 (F(2,38)=3,34, p=.032). Regarding glucose tolerance challenge, there was a significant group effect at the first time of measure after intake of the glucose-dilution (F(1)=9.15, p=.016). Our results do not support the hypothesis that the intervention has the desired effects on body weight, but it influenced positively other metabolic parameters, eating behaviour and social functioning.
Schizophrenia is highly familial neuropsychiatric disorder with heritability estimated at 60-90%. Even unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia manifested some neuropsychological abnormalities as well as neurologic soft sign and morphologic anomalies. the aim of this study was to evaluate personality profile in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia compared to their schizophrenia probands and healthy controls and whether personality profile might be endophenotype of schizophrenia.
The subjects were 97 first-degree relatives of schizophrenia, 48 their schizophrenia probands, and 106 healthy controls, who completed Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) scale. Relatives were further divided into presumed carriers and pesumed non-carriers by schizophrenia genetic loading. Group difference in TCI scores were compared by general linear model using age and gender as covariates.
1. There were significant group differences in HA scores between healthy controls, relatives, and probands after controlling age and gender, in that HA scores were increased by healthy controls, relatives, and probands in order.
2. Presumed carriers have higher HA scores than presumed non-carriers and healthy controls.
3. Proband group showed significantly lower RD and lower P in temperament dimension and lower SD, lower C, and higher ST in character dimension compared to other groups.
We found that HA scores of first-degree relatives of schizophrenia is intermediate level between schizophrenia probands and healthy controls. Considering increase of HA with schizophrenia genetic loading, HA may be potential endophenotype of schizophrenia. Further research with longitudinal follow up is needed to elucidate the clinical implication of high HA observed in schizophrenia family.
Somatization is a common symptom of depression. Somatization is also related to sleep problem including insomnia.Depression is the one of the most common cuase of insomnia. Therefore, it would be needed to investigate the interaction between depression, insomnia and somatization.
To investigate the independent effects of major depressive disorder (MDD) and insomnia on somatization.
To compare somatization of primary insomnia, MDD with insomnia, MDD without insomnia, and normal controls.
A total of 181 participants without serious medical problem were recruited. Subjects were divided into 4 groups based on the SCID-IV and ICD-10 insomnia criteria:
1) normal controls,
2) primary insomnia,
3) MDD without insomnia, and
4) MDD with insomnia.
The somatization subscores of the SCL-90-R were completed by participants.
There were significant between-group differences in somatization (F=25.30, p< 0.001). MDD with insomnia showed higher somatization compared to normal controls (p< 0.001), primary insomnia (p=0.01), or MDD without insomnia (p< 0.001). Primary insomnia had higher somatization than normal controls (p< 0.01), while there was no significant difference between MDD without insomnia and normal controls. Presence of insomnia predicted higher somatization (beta=0.44, p< 0.001), while there was only non-significant association between MDD and somatization (beta=0.14, p=0.08).
In the current study, insomnia was associated with somatization independently from major depression. Subjects with primary insomnia showed higher somatization. Within MDD patients, presence of insomnia was related to higher somatization. Our finding suggests that insomnia may partly mediate the relationship between depression and somatization.
Smartphones are becoming widely popular and the number of users is significantly increasing, reaching over 65% in South Korea in 2013 and the children begin to use a smartphone at earlier age. Earlier and higher exposure of multimedia is known to have negative effects on children's physical and mental status.
The aim of the present study was to examine young children's exposure to smartphone and identify the effects of high exposure of smartphone on children's behaviors among Korean children from ages 3–5 years.
In 2014–2015, the parents of 400 children aged 3–5 years (207 boys and 193 girls) were surveyed using a questionnaire on the use of smartphone, children's behaviors, temperaments, social and language development at 3 community-based children's mental health centers.
Many children used televisions (95.5%), computers (37.3%) or tablet PC (36.2%), and smartphones (84.6%). Most (74.2%) started using mobile medias before age 2. Parents gave children devices like smartphones to keep them calm (60.8%), when being busy doing something (52.2%), and at playtime (34.3%). The children's age at first smartphone use and the frequency were not associated with children's behaviors and temperaments. Higher use group (> 2 h/d) show more somatic symptoms (OR 8.97, P < .001), more attention problem(OR 4.43, P < .001), more aggressive symptoms (OR 1.30, P < .001) and more withdrawal symptoms(OR 1.22, P < .001) than lower use group.
Young children in Korean urban communities had almost universal exposure to mobile devices, especially smartphone. Early and severe exposure of smartphone by young children aged 3–5 years is highly associated with children's behaviour problems like both internalising and externalising problems.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of individuals who used alcohol at the time of attempting suicide.
We divided 143 individuals who attempted suicide by consuming drugs into two groups on the basis of their blood alcohol concentration level: drinker group (n = 79) and non-drinker group (n = 64). We compared epidemiological characteristics and suicidal behavior between the groups by using the Suicidal Intent Scale (SIS) and the Risk Rescue Rating Scale (RRRS). In addition, we administered the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation–II (APACHE–II) to evaluate the medical lethality of the individuals who attempted suicide. We used Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression to analyze the data.
The drinker group scored lower on the SIS's planning subscale than the non-drinker group did (P = 0.022). The drinker group's blood alcohol concentration levels were negatively correlated with the rescue potential of their suicidal attempt (P = 0.031) and the APACHE-II score (P = 0.003). Higher blood alcohol concentration levels predicted poorer medical outcomes measured by the APACHE-II (P = 0.004).
Our findings support the notion that alcohol use increases suicidal impulsivity, decreases rescue potential, and worsens medical outcomes. Therefore, suicide prevention programs need to include education and counselling about the risks associated with alcohol use.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
A South Korean passenger ferry, the Sewol, carrying 476 people, capsized and sank in 2014 resulting in 295 deaths and 9 missing. Most were high-school students on a school trip (246 deaths, 83.4%) and many parents who lost their children had suffered from a wide range of mental and physical health consequences. This research examines the extent and intensity of ongoing psychological distress and PTSD symptoms among the parents 2 years after the disaster. The 141 parents of the high-school victims agree with research participation were surveyed using a questionnaire on sociodemographic data. We conducted the structured clinical interview including PTSD and suicide assessment for them. Among the 141 subjects, 56.0% (n = 79) meet the PTSD diagnostic criteria, suggesting that, after two full years, more than a half of them are still suffering from chronic psychological pains. This result is higher than any other PTSD study about indirect victims. In particular, 42.6% (n = 60) reported suicidal ideation and 4.3% (n = 6) actually attempted suicide but failed. These figures are on the order of 10 to 100 times higher than the national prevalence. This research is characterized by homogeneity of the subjects in that they were all the parents of young adolescent victims. After two years of traumatic experiences, more than a half of the interviewed parents who lost their children are still suffering from the PTSD. These findings suggest that post-disaster PTSD can be larger and last longer when the relationship was more intimate and the death of the victim was less expected.
Disclosure of interest
The author has not supplied his declaration of competing interest.
In this paper, structural modelling and dynamic analysis methods reflecting the characteristics of a liquid propellant were developed for a pogo analysis. The pogo phenomenon results from the complex interaction between the vehicle structural vibration in the longitudinal direction and the propulsion system. Thus, for an accurate vibration analysis of a liquid propellant launch vehicle, both the consumption of the liquid propellant and the change in the stiffness reflecting the nonlinear hydroelastic effect were simultaneously considered. A complete vehicle structure, including the liquid propellant tanks, was analytically modelled while focusing on pogo. In addition, a feasible liquid propellant tank modelling method was established to obtain an one-dimensional complete vehicle model. With these methods, comparative studies of the hydroelastic effect were conducted. Evaluations of the dynamic analysis of a reference vehicle were also conducted during the first burning stage. The numerical results obtained with the present orthotropic model and the dynamic analysis method were found to be in good agreement with the natural vibration characteristics according to previous analyses and experiments. Additionally, the reference vehicle showed the estimated occurrence of pogo in the first structural mode when compared with the frequencies of the propellant feeding system. In conclusion, the present structural modelling and modal analysis procedures can be effectively used to analyse dynamic characteristics of liquid propellant launch vehicles. These techniques are also capable of identifying the occurrence of pogo and providing design criteria related to pogo instability.
For the success of PAL-XFEL, two critical systems, namely a low emittance injector and a variable gap out-vacuum undulator, are under development. In order to realize the target emittance of the PAL-XFEL injector we carried out an optimization study of various parameters, such as the laser beam transverse profile, the laser pulse length, the laser phase, and the gun energy. The transverse emittance measured at the Injector Test Facility (ITF) is
. An undulator prototype based on the EU-XFEL design and modified for PAL-XFEL was built and tested. A local-
pole tuning procedure was developed and tested. A significant reduction (90%) of the local-
fluctuation was observed. The requirement of undulator field reproducibility better than
and the undulator gap setting accuracy below
were achieved for the prototype. The optical phase jitter after the pole height tuning at the tuning gap was calculated to be
rms, which satisfies the requirement of
While multiple DNase activities occur in the excretory/secretory products (ESPs) of the adult Haemonchus contortus, the DNase activities in ESPs of the infective larvae (L3) have not been studied. Thus, the DNase activities in ESPs of H. contortus L3 were investigated and compared to those of adults for developmental stage-specific analysis. The DNase activities had relative molecular masses (Mrs) of 34 and 36 kDa upon zymographic analysis at pH 5.0 and 7.0 when the larvae were incubated for over 48 h. The 34 and 36 kDa DNases of L3 ESPs were also detected in adult ESPs with similar characteristics. However, the 37 and 38.5 kDa DNases of the adult ESPs were not detected in the L3 ESPs. Since the 37 and 38.5 kDa DNase activities were mainly detected in adult ESPs, these activities appear to be specific to the adult stage whereas the other ESP DNase activities appear to be expressed during multiple stages of the parasite's life cycle. While the difference in DNase activities of L3 and adults remains obscure, the role of DNase in larval development should be further clarified and the identification of stage-specific developmental markers will lead to the discovery of specific factors that stimulate larval development.
There is continued interest in developing more stable contacts to a variety of GaN-based devices. In this paper we give two examples of devices that show improved thermal stability when boride, nitride or Ir diffusion barriers are employed in Ohmic contact stacks. AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) were fabricated with Ti/Al/X /Ti/Au source/
drain Ohmic (where X is TiB2, ZrN, TiN, TaN or Ir) contacts and subjected to long-term annealing at 350°C. For GaN layers with an electron concentration of ∼3×1017 cm-3, the minimum specific contact resistance achieved is 6×10-5 Ω cm2 for Ti/Al/TiN/Ti/Au after annealing at 800°C. The specific contact resistance was found to strongly depend on the doping level, suggesting that tunneling is the dominant mechanism of current flow. By comparison with companion devices with conventional Ti/Al/Ni/Au Ohmic contacts, the HEMTs with boride-based Ohmic metal showed superior stability of both source-drain current and transconductance after 25 days aging at 350°C. The gate current for standard HEMTs increases during aging and the standard Ohmic contacts eventually fail by shorting to the gate contact. Similarly, InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes (MQW-LEDs) were fabricated with either Ni/Au/TiB2/Ti/Au or Ni/Au/Ir/Au p-Ohmic contacts. Both of these contacts showed superior long-term thermal stability compared to LEDs with conventional Ni/Au contacts.