In Australia Bt cotton has been planted since 1996, and has greatly improved the control of its key target Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). There is no strong evidence that genetically modified cotton has been selected for significant physiological resistance to Bt toxin in field populations. There are many possible explanations for the lack of apparent selection that range from high compliance with the resistance management strategy for this technology to a lack of behavioral preference in key traits such as oviposition that could favor survival. To date most experiments that test oviposition of H. armigera on Bt cotton vs. conventional cotton have been done with susceptible moths. We determine the oviposition preference of a field isolated Bt resistant line of H. armigera and a susceptible counterpart when given a choice of non-Bt cotton and Bt-cotton with the same genetic background, and test whether there is any relationship between oviposition site selection (different plant structures) and the survival of the first instar larvae. Within cotton plants, our experiments consistently showed that both resistant and susceptible moths did not choose plants or plant parts that were less toxic in terms of Bt toxin on which to lay eggs. There was one exception in that susceptible moths were more likely to lay eggs on squares of Bt cotton plants than squares of non-Bt cotton. As expected, the mortality of susceptible H. armigera neonates was significantly higher on structures of Bt cotton plants than on those structures of conventional cotton, and survival was greater on flowers than on other structures of Bt cotton. This confirms opportunities for selection for resistance, and demonstrates no advantage in this respect to carrying resistance genes that might overcome the Bt toxins.