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Timing of weed emergence and seed persistence in the soil influence the ability to implement timely and effective control practices. Emergence patterns and seed persistence of kochia populations were monitored in 2010 and 2011 at sites in Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska, and South Dakota. Weekly observations of emergence were initiated in March and continued until no new emergence occurred. Seed was harvested from each site, placed into 100-seed mesh packets, and buried at depths of 0, 2.5, and 10 cm in fall of 2010 and 2011. Packets were exhumed at 6-mo intervals over 2 yr. Viability of exhumed seeds was evaluated. Nonlinear mixed-effects Weibull models were fit to cumulative emergence (%) across growing degree days (GDD) and to viable seed (%) across burial time to describe their fixed and random effects across site-years. Final emergence densities varied among site-years and ranged from as few as 4 to almost 380,000 seedlings m−2. Across 11 site-years in Kansas, cumulative GDD needed for 10% emergence were 168, while across 6 site-years in Wyoming and Nebraska, only 90 GDD were needed; on the calendar, this date shifted from early to late March. The majority (>95%) of kochia seed did not persist for more than 2 yr. Remaining seed viability was generally >80% when seeds were exhumed within 6 mo after burial in March, and declined to <5% by October of the first year after burial. Burial did not appear to increase or decrease seed viability over time but placed seed in a position from which seedling emergence would not be possible. High seedling emergence that occurs very early in the spring emphasizes the need for fall or early spring PRE weed control such as tillage, herbicides, and cover crops, while continued emergence into midsummer emphasizes the need for extended periods of kochia management.
An outbreak of respiratory diphtheria occurred in two health districts in the province of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa in 2015. A multidisciplinary outbreak response team was involved in the investigation and management of the outbreak. Fifteen cases of diphtheria were identified, with ages ranging from 4 to 41 years. Of the 12 cases that were under the age of 18 years, 9 (75%) were not fully immunized for diphtheria. The case fatality was 27%. Ninety-three household contacts, 981 school or work contacts and 595 healthcare worker contacts were identified and given prophylaxis against Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection. A targeted vaccination campaign for children aged 6–15 years was carried out at schools in the two districts. The outbreak highlighted the need to improve diphtheria vaccination coverage in the province and to investigate the feasibility of offering diphtheria vaccines to healthcare workers.
Retreatment of tuberculosis (TB) often fails in China, yet the risk factors associated with the failure remain unclear. To identify risk factors for the treatment failure of retreated pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients, we analyzed the data of 395 retreated PTB patients who received retreatment between July 2009 and July 2011 in China. PTB patients were categorized into ‘success’ and ‘failure’ groups by their treatment outcome. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to evaluate the association between treatment outcome and socio-demographic as well as clinical factors. We also created an optimized risk score model to evaluate the predictive values of these risk factors on treatment failure. Of 395 patients, 99 (25·1%) were diagnosed as retreatment failure. Our results showed that risk factors associated with treatment failure included drug resistance, low education level, low body mass index (<18·5), long duration of previous treatment (>6 months), standard treatment regimen, retreatment type, positive culture result after 2 months of treatment, and the place where the first medicine was taken. An Optimized Framingham risk model was then used to calculate the risk scores of these factors. Place where first medicine was taken (temporary living places) received a score of 6, which was highest among all the factors. The predicted probability of treatment failure increases as risk score increases. Ten out of 359 patients had a risk score >9, which corresponded to an estimated probability of treatment failure >70%. In conclusion, we have identified multiple clinical and socio-demographic factors that are associated with treatment failure of retreated PTB patients. We also created an optimized risk score model that was effective in predicting the retreatment failure. These results provide novel insights for the prognosis and improvement of treatment for retreated PTB patients.
We present a scheme of electron beam radiography to dynamically diagnose the high energy density (HED) matter in three orthogonal directions simultaneously based on electron Linear Accelerator. The dynamic target information such as, its profile and density could be obtained through imaging the scattered electron beam passing through the target. Using an electron bunch train with flexible time structure, a very high temporal evolution could be achieved. In this proposed scheme, it is possible to obtain 1010 frames/second in one experimental event, and the temporal resolution can go up to 1 ps, spatial resolution to 1 µm. Successful demonstration of this concept will have a major impact for both future inertial confinement fusion science and HED physics research.
Among several potential animal models that can be used for adipogenic studies, Wagyu cattle is the one that presents unique molecular mechanisms underlying the deposit of substantial amounts of intramuscular fat. As such, this review is focused on current knowledge of such mechanisms related to adipose tissue deposition using Wagyu cattle as model. So abundant is the lipid accumulation in the skeletal muscles of these animals that in many cases, the muscle cross-sectional area appears more white (adipose tissue) than red (muscle fibers). This enhanced marbling accumulation is morphologically similar to that seen in numerous skeletal muscle dysfunctions, disease states and myopathies; this might indicate cross-similar mechanisms between such dysfunctions and fat deposition in Wagyu breed. Animal models can be used not only for a better understanding of fat deposition in livestock, but also as models to an increased comprehension on molecular mechanisms behind human conditions. This revision underlies some of the complex molecular processes of fat deposition in animals.
The accuracy of the parameters is of great importance in the calculation and simulation
of the COREX process. Therefore, it is necessary to measure some parameters, especially
the heat loss and its distribution, which have not been reported before. Based on the
characteristics of the two sets of the Baosteel COREX-3000 process, a method and standard
are established for the heat loss and its distribution. Then the heat loss and
distribution are calculated based on the measured parameters. The results show that the
total heat loss of the two COREX processes is 495.4 MJ/tHM and 413.7 MJ/tHM. The heat loss
caused by cooling water accounts for more than 93% of the total heat loss while the heat
loss of furnace shells is less than 7%. The main heat loss caused by cooling water takes
place at the tap hole zone, which is also the part of the COREX system with the most heat
loss Its heat loss is about 30% of the heat loss caused by cooling water and 28% of the
total heat loss of the COREX system. The main heat loss of furnace shells takes place at
the dome of the melter-gasifier and the reducing gas entrance position of the shaft
furnace, where the heat loss accounts for nearly 90% of the heat loss of furnace shells.
It is also found that the energy utilization efficiency of the 1# COREX system is much
lower than that of the 2# COREX system after comparison.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.
The role of aluminum in negating the adverse effect of alkali species on the oxidation resistance of Si3N4 ceramics was investigated by exposing unimplanted and aluminum-implanted (1 and 5 at.%) Si3N4 samples to a sodium nitrate (95 ppm)-dry oxygen gas mixture at 1. atm and at 900°1100°C. Oxidation of unimplanted Si3N4 was rapid and linear with an activation energy of 57 kJ/mol. In contrast, samples implanted with aluminum exhibited a considerably reduced oxide growth which was parabolic in nature with activation energies of 103–112 kJ/mol. The morphological characteristics of the oxide layer also showed marked improvement as the aluminum concentration increased.
The magnetic reconnection (MR) configuration was constructed by using two approaching laser-produced plasma bubbles. The characteristics of the MR current sheet were investigated. The driving energy of the laser pulse affects the type of the current sheet. The experiments present “Y-type” and “X-type” current sheets for larger and smaller driving energy, respectively. The energetic electrons were found to be well-collimated. The formation and ejection of plasmoid from the “Y-type” current sheet was expected to enhance the number of accelerated electrons.
Tetramethyl ammonium silicate (TMAS) is known as a structuring agent in zeolite synthesis. We report its first use to prepare porous silica films for low k dielectric applications in microelectronics. A solution of TMAS 18.7 wt. % was spin coated on silicon substrates with a 3000 Å thick thermal oxide. The spin coated films were subsequently heat-treated at 450°C to obtain porous silica. The use of TMAS solution without gelation led to films of only moderate porosity value of 10%. The addition of methyl lactate, a gelling agent, significantly increased film porosity and improved the pore size distribution. For example, 50% porosity and uniform pore size distribution (average pore size ∼ 40 Å) has been achieved. Dielectric constants (k) of our porous films are as low as 2.5.
When silane, with more than 0.1% of diborane in the gas mixture, are co-pyrolyzed at temperatures below 540°C, an amorphous silicon-boron alloy is formed. The composition of the solid film was determined by SINS and Auger spectroscopy. The amorphous nature of the films was established by X-ray diffraction, laser Raman spectroscopy, and TEM electron diffraction. Electrical and optical properties of this material are reported. Oxidation and chemical etching of this material were also studied.
We report an investigation of excited-state absorption in cubane-like transition metal clusters. The fluence-dependent transmittances of the clusters have been measured with using 8-ns laser pulses. Time-resolved transmission measurements show that the triplet-triplet absorption occurs within a few nanoseconds. We have also developed a five-level (two singlet states, two triplet states, and one ionized state) model to simulate the excited-state absorption in these cluster compounds. The comparison between the model and the experimental measurements indicates that the population of the triplet states is created mainly by an ionization-recombination process and the triplet-triplet transitions are responsible for the observed nonlinear absorption.
Crystallization and texture formation of a number of layered perovskite thin films prepared by the MOD method has been investigated. The crystallization temperature increases with increasing complexity of the structure, rendering it more difficult to obtain c-axis oriented films. Texture formation can be facilitated by the introduction of a seeding layer, such as PbBi2Nb2O9, which has a somewhat lower crystallization temperature, and by multiple coatings, which allow successive crystallization. Grain size is also reduced by the above practice. These results are compared with similar findings in PZT thin films to conclude that texture development in layered perovskites is nucleation controlled.
Using reflection electron microscopy (REM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Nomarski optical microscopy we obtained direct evidence that local surface strain-fields, originated from misfit dislocations, are responsible for the formation of morphological crosshatches during molecular beam epitaxy of lattice mismatched InGaAs/GaAs layers. A mechanism is proposed to correlate the formation of the crosshatched patterns with the variation of the growth rate across the epitaxial surface under the perturbation of network shaped strain-fields in the surface.
By using a low temperature growth process, Er doping in Si during MBE using Er2O3 or ErF3 as dopant sources has achieved a level of 5 × 1019 cm−3 without precipitation and generation of other extended defects. Luminescence properties of these Er-doped MBE Si structures have been extensively studied using both photon and hot electron impact excitation at a wide range of temperatures (2–300 K). It has been found that by incorporating C into Er/O doped layers, the room temperature EL emission with a FWHM value of 14 meV was ten times more intense than that with lower C doping. Post thermal annealing gave a strong effect on Er/F doped layers, leading to a 7-fold increase of the highest peak intensity while the peak line width reduced to 0.12 meV, which is very important for laser applications.
The knowledge of elastic properties of the various types of rubber is significant for many commercial and academic applications. A sample set consisting of generic elastomeric compounds was studied using non-destructive non-contact ultrasonic techniques. The longitudinal sound wave velocities in the sample and wave amplitude attenuation in the sample were measured using the Second Wave Inc. Non-Contact Analyzer 1000 (NCA1000). The Contact method was then used to corroborate the results obtained. A rule-of-mixture model was used to compare the velocity values obtained by the non-contact technique. The preliminary results suggest that the differences in attenuation are driven by polymer type and also to a lesser extent by the loading level of carbon black fillers.
At the University of Toledo (UT), we have investigated hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) n-i-p solar cells with intrinsic layers deposited at high rates, ~ 8 Å/s, using our UT multi-chamber load-locked PECVD system. a-Si:H i-layers were grown with a VHF plasma density of ~ 0.2 W/cm2 and a frequency of 70 MHz using various hydrogen dilution levels. It is observed from the current-voltage (I-V) device performance characteristics that the open-circuit voltage (Voc) increases with increasing hydrogen dilution reaching a maximum and then decreasing. This drop in Voc can be attributed to the transition region (or protocrystalline regime) from an amorphous phase into a mixed amorphous+nanocrystalline (a + nc) phase for the i-layer. An initial efficiency of 9.99% (Voc = 0.986 V, Jsc = 13.98 mA/cm2, FF = 72.5%) was obtained. Quantum efficiency (QE) measurement has shown that the blue light response increases as the hydrogen dilution increases. Very good blue light spectral response with QE values over 0.7 at the wavelength of 400 nm have been obtained for a-Si:H cells made under specific deposition conditions in which tailored protocrystalline silicon materials were incorporated at the i/p interface region.