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This essay explores how the term ‘girl,’ or 少女 (sonyŏ), in 1930s colonial Korean society simultaneously created and resisted homogeneity. We analyze the different contexts and cultural forces that shaped the term ‘girl’ in colonial Korea in order to illustrate some phases of the relationships that historical girls of colonial Korea had with their nation and state, the nation, that is, to which they thought they belonged at births and the state for which they were mobilized while they were systematically otherized. In our examination, we scrutinize the ways in which the subjectivities of colonial girls were ideologically forged through educational and institutional interventions and cultural interpellation. The first section discusses the concept of the girl in colonial Korea. The second part analyzes the various ideological functions that school textbooks played in gender-specific inculcation of colonial state ideals. We then read the ways The Chosŏn Ilbo (Chosŏn Daily) used the term the ‘girl’ in the 1930s, the period when the conceptual distinction between children and adults was further solidified, and the call on children was gender-specific in public. We finally elucidate the colonial processes of which girls of colonial Korea became part, albeit unknowingly.
The aeroelastic phenomenon of limit-cycle oscillations (LCOs) is analysed using a projection-based reduced-order model (PROM) and Navier–Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the time domain. The proposed approach employs incompressible Navier–Stokes CFD to construct the full-order model flow field. A proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the snapshot matrix is conducted to extract the POD modes and corresponding temporal coefficients. The POD modes are directly projected to the incompressible Navier–Stokes equation to reconstruct the flow field efficiently. The methodology is applied to a plunging cylinder and an aerofoil undergoing LCOs. This scheme decreases the computational time while preserving the capability to predict the flow field accurately. The ROM is capable of reducing the computational time by at least 70% while maintaining the discrepancy within 0.1%. The causes of LCOs are also investigated. The scheme can be used to analyse non-linear aeroelastic phenomena in the time domain with reduced computational time.
The aim of this study was to examine whether the presence of risk alleles of the norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2) polymorphisms is associated with differences in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured by 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission computerized tomography in a Korean sample of ADHD.
The present study included 24 children with ADHD (9.5±2.4 years), consisting of 20 boys and 4 girls, aged 6-16 years. We investigated the G1287A and -3081(A/T) polymorphisms of the SLC6A2. The rCBF was compared between the ADHD subjects with and without risk alleles at the G1287A polymorphism and at the -3081(A/T) polymorphism. Image analyses were performed with voxelwise t-statistics using SPM2.
1) The ADHD subjects with the A allele (risk allele) at the G1287A polymorphism showed reduced perfusion in the left middle frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, precuneus, right superior frontal gyrus, and right superior parietal lobule as compared with ADHD subjects without the A allele (p< 0.001).
2) The ADHD subjects with the A allele at the G1287A polymorphism showed increased perfusion in the right middle frontal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and right anterior lobe of cerebellum as compared with ADHD subjects without the A allele (p< 0.001).
3) No significant perfusion differences were found between ADHD subjects with and without the T allele (risk allele) at the -3081(A/T) polymorphism.
Our findings suggest that the SLC6A2 G1287A polymorphism might exert differential effects on rCBF in children with ADHD.
There have been many changes in the treatment of bipolar disorder.
It is necessary to develop guidelines that can more aptly respond to cultural issues and specifics in different countries.
The Korean Medication Algorithm for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) was firstly published in 2002, with updates in 2006 and 2010. This third update reviewed the experts' consensus of opinion on the pharmacological treatments of bipolar disorder.
The newly revised questionnaire composed of 55 key questions about clinical situations including 223 sub-items was sent to the experts.
Combination of mood stabilizer (MS) and atypical antipsychotic (AAP) was the first-line treatment option in acute mania. For the management of severe psychotic bipolar depression, combination of MS and AAP, combination of AAP and LTG, combination of MS, AAP and AD or LTG, combination of AAP and AD, and combination of AAP, AD and LTG was the first-line treatments. Combination of MS and AAP was the treatment of choice for management of mixed features. Combination of MS and AAP, MS or AAP monotherapy was the first-line options for management of maintenance phase after manic episode. For maintenance treatment after bipolar I depression, combination of MS and AAP, combination of MS and LTG, combination of AAP and LTG, MS or LTG monotherapy, and combination of MS, AAP and LTG were the first-line options.
Despite the limitations of expert consensus guideline, KMAP-BP 2014 may reflect the current patterns of clinical practice and recent researches.
Pharmacogenomics (PGx) testing, in particular combinatorial PGx testing, represents a potential means for delivering personalized treatment selection for patients with psychiatric disorders. The goal of this educational intervention was to educate clinicians about the role of PGx testing in neuropsychiatric conditions such as MDD, how these novel tests may be implemented into clinical practice, and how results may be used to inform decision-making.
Psychiatrists (n=830) participated in an online enduring CME activity on PGx testing in psychiatric disorders
• The format was a 30-minute 2-person discussion (launched December 7, 2018)
• Data from this activity were collected for 30 days after launch
• Effectiveness of education for the CME activities was analyzed using 3 multiple-choice and 1 self-efficacy question (5-point Likert-type scale), presented as pre-/post-CME repeated pairs
• A paired samples t-test was conducted to examine improvements in mean confidence pre and post
Participant knowledge, competence, and confidence change in pre- to post-CME responses were calculated
Overall, 72% of psychiatrists (n=830) had knowledge or competence that was reinforced or improved as a result of education.
* 56% and 12% of psychiatrists had reinforcement and improvement, respectively, in knowledge related to the clinical benefits of PGx-guided treatment strategies
• 61% and 8% of psychiatrists had reinforcement and improvement, respectively, in competence related to interpreting PGx tests for patients with neuropsychiatric disorders
• Within the group of psychiatrists with reinforced and improved knowledge/competence, there was a 30% increase in their confidence using PGx tests to help guide treatment decisions for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (M pre=2.14, post=2.77, scale 1 to 5)
• Confidence in the use of PGx testing was correlated with likelihood of considering PGx testing for patients with MDD
Online CME aided in psychiatrists’ knowledge, competence, and confidence in using pharmacogenomics testing in patients with psychiatric disorders.
Supported by an independent educational grant from Myriad Neuroscience, formerly Assurex Health
We consider a spherical variant of the Faraday problem, in which a spherical drop is subjected to a time-periodic body force, as well as surface tension. We use a full three-dimensional parallel front-tracking code to calculate the interface motion of the parametrically forced oscillating viscous drop, as well as the velocity field inside and outside the drop. Forcing frequencies are chosen so as to excite spherical harmonic wavenumbers ranging from 1 to 6. We excite gravity waves for wavenumbers 1 and 2 and observe translational and oblate–prolate oscillation, respectively. For wavenumbers 3 to 6, we excite capillary waves and observe patterns analogous to the Platonic solids. For low viscosity, both subharmonic and harmonic responses are accessible. The patterns arising in each case are interpreted in the context of the theory of pattern formation with spherical symmetry.
After five positive randomized controlled trials showed benefit of mechanical thrombectomy in the management of acute ischemic stroke with emergent large-vessel occlusion, a multi-society meeting was organized during the 17th Congress of the World Federation of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology in October 2017 in Budapest, Hungary. This multi-society meeting was dedicated to establish standards of practice in acute ischemic stroke intervention aiming for a consensus on the minimum requirements for centers providing such treatment. In an ideal situation, all patients would be treated at a center offering a full spectrum of neuroendovascular care (a level 1 center). However, for geographical reasons, some patients are unable to reach such a center in a reasonable period of time. With this in mind, the group paid special attention to define recommendations on the prerequisites of organizing stroke centers providing medical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke, but not for other neurovascular diseases (level 2 centers). Finally, some centers will have a stroke unit and offer intravenous thrombolysis, but not any endovascular stroke therapy (level 3 centers). Together, these level 1, 2, and 3 centers form a complete stroke system of care. The multi-society group provides recommendations and a framework for the development of medical thrombectomy services worldwide.
In this study, an improved fluid–structure interaction (FSI) analysis method is developed for a flapping wing. A co-rotational (CR) shell element is developed for its structural analysis. Further, a relevant non-linear dynamic formulation is developed based on the CR framework. Three-dimensional preconditioned Navier–Stokes equations are employed for its fluid analysis. An implicit coupling scheme is employed to combine the structural and fluid analyses. An explicit investigation of a 3D plunging wing is conducted using this FSI analysis method. A further investigation of this plunging wing is performed in relation to its operating condition. In addition, the relation between the wing’s aerodynamic performance and plunging motion is investigated.
BACKGROUND: Meningiomas are the most common primary benign brain tumors in adults. Given the extended life expectancy of most meningiomas, consideration of quality of life (QOL) is important when selecting the optimal management strategy. There is currently a dearth of meningioma-specific QOL tools in the literature. OBJECTIVE: In this systematic review, we analyze the prevailing themes and propose toward building a meningioma-specific QOL assessment tool. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted, and only original studies based on adult patients were considered. QOL tools used in the various studies were analyzed for identification of prevailing themes in the qualitative analysis. The quality of the studies was also assessed. RESULTS: Sixteen articles met all inclusion criteria. Fifteen different QOL assessment tools assessed social and physical functioning, psychological, and emotional well-being. Patient perceptions and support networks had a major impact on QOL scores. Surgery negatively affected social functioning in younger patients, while radiation therapy had a variable impact. Any intervention appeared to have a greater negative impact on physical functioning compared to observation. CONCLUSION: Younger patients with meningiomas appear to be more vulnerable within social and physical functioning domains. All of these findings must be interpreted with great caution due to great clinical heterogeneity, limited generalizability, and risk of bias. For meningioma patients, the ideal QOL questionnaire would present outcomes that can be easily measured, presented, and compared across studies. Existing scales can be the foundation upon which a comprehensive, standard, and simple meningioma-specific survey can be prospectively developed and validated.
The flow in a decelerating turbulent round jet is investigated using direct numerical simulation. The simulations are initialised with a flow field from a statistically stationary turbulent jet. Upon stopping the inflow, a deceleration wave passes through the jet, behind which the velocity field evolves towards a new statistically unsteady self-similar state. Assumption of unsteady self-similar behaviour leads to analytical relations concerning the evolution of the centreline mean axial velocity and the shapes of the radial profiles of the velocity statistics. Consistency between these predictions and the simulation data supports the use of the assumption of self-similarity. The mean radial velocity is predicted to reverse in direction near to the jet centreline as the deceleration wave passes, contributing to an approximately threefold increase in the normalised mass entrainment rate. The shape of the mean axial velocity profile undergoes a relatively small change across the deceleration transient, and this observation provides direct evidence in support of previous models that have assumed that the mean axial velocity profile, and in some cases also the jet spreading angle, remain approximately constant within unsteady jets.
Previous research has shown relatively diminished medial prefrontal cortex activation and heightened psychophysiological responses during the recollection of personal events in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the origin of these abnormalities is unknown. Twin studies provide the opportunity to determine whether such abnormalities reflect familial vulnerabilities, result from trauma exposure, or are acquired characteristics of PTSD.
In this case–control twin study, 26 male identical twin pairs (12 PTSD; 14 non-PTSD) discordant for PTSD and combat exposure recalled and imagined trauma-unrelated stressful and neutral life events using a standard script-driven imagery paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging and concurrent skin conductance measurement.
Diminished activation in the medial prefrontal cortex during Stressful v. Neutral script-driven imagery was observed in the individuals with PTSD, relative to other groups.
Diminished medial prefrontal cortex activation during Stressful v. Neutral script-driven imagery may be an acquired characteristic of PTSD. If replicated, this finding could be used prospectively to inform diagnosis and the assessment of treatment response.
The enhanced error monitoring in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), typically measured with the error-related negativity (ERN), has been found to be temporally stable and independent of symptom expression. Here, we examined whether the error monitoring in patients with OCD could be experimentally modulated by individually tailored symptom provocation.
Twenty patients with OCD and 20 healthy controls performed a flanker task in which OCD-relevant or neutral pictures were presented prior to a flanker stimulus. An individualized stimulus set consisting of the most provoking images in terms of OCD symptoms was selected for each patient with OCD. Response-locked event-related potentials were recorded and used to examine the error-related brain activity.
Patients with OCD showed larger ERN amplitudes than did control subjects in both the OCD-symptom provocation and neutral conditions. Additionally, while patients with OCD exhibited a significant increase in the ERN under the OCD-symptom provocation condition when compared with the neutral condition, control subjects showed no variation in the ERN between the conditions.
Our results strengthen earlier findings of hyperactive error monitoring in OCD, as indexed by higher ERN amplitudes in patients with OCD than in controls. Importantly, we showed that the patients’ overactive error-signals were experimentally enhanced by individually tailored OCD-symptom triggers, thus suggesting convincing evidence between OCD-symptoms and ERN. Such findings imply that therapeutic interventions should target affective regulation in order to alleviate the perceived threatening value of OCD triggers.
The Antarctic Roadmap Challenges (ARC) project identified critical requirements to deliver high priority Antarctic research in the 21st century. The ARC project addressed the challenges of enabling technologies, facilitating access, providing logistics and infrastructure, and capitalizing on international co-operation. Technological requirements include: i) innovative automated in situ observing systems, sensors and interoperable platforms (including power demands), ii) realistic and holistic numerical models, iii) enhanced remote sensing and sensors, iv) expanded sample collection and retrieval technologies, and v) greater cyber-infrastructure to process ‘big data’ collection, transmission and analyses while promoting data accessibility. These technologies must be widely available, performance and reliability must be improved and technologies used elsewhere must be applied to the Antarctic. Considerable Antarctic research is field-based, making access to vital geographical targets essential. Future research will require continent- and ocean-wide environmentally responsible access to coastal and interior Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Year-round access is indispensable. The cost of future Antarctic science is great but there are opportunities for all to participate commensurate with national resources, expertise and interests. The scope of future Antarctic research will necessitate enhanced and inventive interdisciplinary and international collaborations. The full promise of Antarctic science will only be realized if nations act together.
Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes in glacier melt independently from model output. Here, we present a comprehensive database of Greenland glacier surface mass-balance observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. The database spans the 123 a from 1892 to 2015, contains a total of ~3000 measurements from 46 sites, and is openly accessible through the PROMICE web portal (http://www.promice.dk). For each measurement we provide X, Y and Z coordinates, starting and ending dates as well as quality flags. We give sources for each entry and for all metadata. Two thirds of the data were collected from grey literature and unpublished archive documents. Roughly 60% of the measurements were performed by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS, previously GGU). The data cover all regions of Greenland except for the southernmost part of the east coast, but also emphasize the importance of long-term time series of which there are only two exceeding 20 a. We use the data to analyse uncertainties in point measurements of surface mass balance, as well as to estimate surface mass-balance profiles for most regions of Greenland.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has been associated with abnormal cognitive and emotional functions and these dysfunctions may be dependent on the disruption of dynamic interactions within neuronal circuits associated with emotion regulation. Although several studies have shown the aberrant cognitive–affective processing in OCD patients, little is known about how to characterize effective connectivity of the disrupted neural interactions. In the present study, we applied effective connectivity analysis using dynamic causal modeling to explore the disturbed neural interactions in OCD patients.
A total of 20 patients and 21 matched healthy controls performed a delayed-response working memory task under emotional or non-emotional distraction while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging.
During the delay interval under negative emotional distraction, both groups showed similar patterns of activations in the amygdala. However, under negative emotional distraction, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) exhibited significant differences between groups. Bayesian model averaging indicated that the connection from the DLPFC to the OFC was negatively modulated by negative emotional distraction in patients, when compared with healthy controls (p < 0.05, Bonferroni-corrected).
Exaggerated recruitment of the DLPFC may induce the reduction of top-down prefrontal control input over the OFC, leading to abnormal cortico-cortical interaction. This disrupted cortico-cortical interaction under negative emotional distraction may be responsible for dysfunctions of cognitive and emotional processing in OCD patients and may be a component of the pathophysiology associated with OCD.
Dextromethorphan (DM)/quinidine (Q) is an approved treatment for pseudobulbar affect (PBA) based on trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or multiple sclerosis. PRISM II evaluated DM/Q effectiveness and tolerability for PBA secondary to dementia, stroke, or traumatic brain injury; dementia cohort results are reported.
This was an open-label, multicenter, 90 day trial; patients received DM/Q 20/10 mg twice daily. Primary outcome was change in Center for Neurologic Study–Lability Scale (CNS-LS) score. Secondary outcomes included PBA episode count and Clinical and Patient/Caregiver Global Impression of Change scores with respect to PBA (CGI-C/PGI-C).
134 patients were treated. CNS-LS improved by a mean (SD) of 7.2 (6.0) points at Day 90/Endpoint (P<.001) vs. baseline. PBA episodes were reduced 67.7% (P<.001) vs. baseline; global measures showed 77.5% CGI-C and 76.5% PGI-C “much”/”very much” improved. Adverse events included headache (7.5%), urinary tract infection (4.5%), and diarrhea (3.7%); few patients dropped out for adverse events (10.4%).
DM/Q significantly reduced PBA symptoms in patients with dementia; reported adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of DM/Q.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, relapsing mental illness. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors block serotonin transporters (SERTs) and are the mainstay of treatment for OCD. SERT abnormalities are reported in drug-free patients with OCD, but it is not known what happens to SERT levels during treatment. This is important as alterations in SERT levels in patients under treatment could underlie poor response, or relapse during or after treatment. The aim of the present study was first to validate a novel approach to measuring SERT levels in people taking treatment and then to investigate SERT binding potential (BP) using [11C]DASB PET in patients with OCD currently treated with escitalopram in comparison with healthy controls.
Twelve patients and age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. The patients and healthy controls underwent serial PET scans after administration of escitalopram and blood samples for drug concentrations were collected simultaneously with the scans. Drug-free BPs were obtained by using an inhibitory Emax model we developed previously.
The inhibitory Emax model was able to accurately predict drug-free SERT BP in people taking drug treatment. The drug-free BP in patients with OCD currently treated with escitalopram was significantly different from those in healthy volunteers [Cohen's d = 0.03 (caudate), 1.16 (putamen), 1.46 (thalamus), −5.67 (dorsal raphe nucleus)].
This result extends previous findings showing SERT abnormalities in drug-free patients with OCD by indicating that altered SERT availability is seen in OCD despite treatment. This could account for poor response and the high risk of relapse in OCD.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
We report the first simulations of the Faraday instability using the full three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations in domains much larger than the characteristic wavelength of the pattern. We use a massively parallel code based on a hybrid front-tracking/level-set algorithm for Lagrangian tracking of arbitrarily deformable phase interfaces. Simulations performed in square and cylindrical domains yield complex patterns. In particular, a superlattice-like pattern similar to those of Douady & Fauve (Europhys. Lett., vol. 6, 1988, pp. 221–226) and Douady (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 221, 1990, pp. 383–409) is observed. The pattern consists of the superposition of two square superlattices. We conjecture that such patterns are widespread if the square container is large compared with the critical wavelength. In the cylinder, pentagonal cells near the outer wall allow a square-wave pattern to be accommodated in the centre.
Depression is common after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with adverse effects on prognosis. There is little evidence on whether depression treatment improves quality of life (QoL) in ACS patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of co-morbid depression and its treatment on QoL in ACS.
In total, 1152 patients were recruited at baseline, 2–14 weeks after a confirmed ACS episode, and 828 were followed 1 year thereafter. Of 446 baseline participants with co-morbid depressive disorders, 300 were randomized to a 24-week double blind trial of escitalopram or placebo, while the remaining 146 received medical treatment only (MTO). QoL was measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life –Abbreviated form (WHOQOL-BREF).
At baseline, QoL was significantly lower in patients with co-morbid depressive disorder than those without. QoL improvement was significantly greater in those receiving escitalopram than those receiving placebo over the 24-week treatment period. In the 1-year follow-up, the better outcomes associated with escitalopram remained evident against both placebo and MTO.
Depression was significantly associated with worse QoL even in patients with recently developed ACS. Depression treatment was associated with QoL improvement in ACS patients in the 24-week treatment period, the effects of which extended to 1 year.