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The Wenchuan earthquake was a catastrophic earthquake in China. The aim of this study is to explore longitudinally the rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in adolescents after the Wenchuan earthquake, and to identify independent predictors of PTSD.
PTSD and depression symptoms among adolescents at 6, 12 and 18 months after the Wenchuan earthquake were investigated using the PTSD Checklist Civilian Version and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Subjects in this study included 548 high school student survivors in a local boarding high school.
The rates of PTSD symptoms were 9.7%, 1.3% and 1.6% at the 6-, 12- and 18-month follow-ups, respectively. BDI scores were found to be the best predictor of severity of PTSD at 6, 12 and 18 months. Gender was another variable contributing significantly to PTSD at 6 and 12 months after the earthquake. In the 12-month follow-up, home damage was found to be a predictor of severity of PTSD symptoms. Being a child with siblings was found to be a predictor of severity of PTSD symptoms at 12 and 18 months after the earthquake.
PTSD symptoms changed gradually at various stages after the earthquake. Depression symptoms were predictive of PTSD symptoms in the 18-month follow-up study. Other predictors of PTSD symptoms included female gender and being a child with siblings. The results of this study may be helpful for further mental health interventions for adolescents after earthquakes.
A multi-cross-correlation method (MCCM) was developed in a particle image velocimetry (PIV) auto-processing system to reduce spurious vectors and improve accuracy of measurements. This technique is an improvement based on conventional cross-correlation method (CCM). Four typical neighboring interrogation windows were specified to be overlapped and calculated by MCCM. A high cross-correlation value is obtained in which many particle images match up with their corresponding spatially shifted partners, and small cross-correlation peaks due to interference of noises during experiments are reduced. Several parameters such as out-of-plane motions, particle size, and seeding density are considered for checking both MCCM and conventional PIV algorithms. The examination gives authenticity to the merits of MCCM for avoiding particles loss or mistaken velocity vectors.
Rheological measurements have been used to study the kinetics of shear induced association for rod-shape micelles formed by mixtures of ADHAB and salicylic-sodium salt. Pronounced hysteresis and large fluctuations were found in the stress-shear rate diagram. We investigate the association and dissociation mechanism through stress quench experiments where viscosity measurements study the system relaxation. The association process was found to be a single exponential with a relaxation time of about 1 minute, whereas the dissociation process was much slower and was non-exponential. In the semidilute regime, the critical shear rates increase with concentration, contradictory with existing theories.
This work presents the result of mechanical characterization of the fracture toughness and interfacial strength of PECVD silicon nitride films deposited on silicon subjected to rapid thermal annealing (RTA) processing between 200 and 800 °C. Both micro- and nano-indentation techniques are employed to perform the experiments. In conjunction with the model proposed by Marshall and Lawn for data reduction, the fracture toughness of un-heat treated nitride is obtained as 2.2 MPa√m based on a series of Vickers micro-indentation tests and this value is essentially unchanged if the RTA temperatures are below 400°C. Further increase in RTA temperature would significantly enhance the fracture toughness. On the other hand, using nanoindentation testing in conjunction with the model proposed by Marshall and Evans, the interfacial strength between the nitride and silicon is determined as 17.2 J/m2 for un-heat treatment nitrides and it could also be significantly enhanced by RTA processes with temperatures exceeding 400°C. These results should be useful for related MEMS or IC structure fabrication for the concerns of maintaining the structural integrity and improve fabrication performance in related applications.
In this paper a wide range of temp. dependent kernel function ρ(Z) and the strain-rate function h(, T) in the Endochronic viscoplasticity were established first by using experimental steady hysteresis loops of Wei et. al., for Sn/3.9Ag/0.6Cu Solder at fixed 298K or 373K and strain rate at 10−3, 10−4 and 10−51/s; and then extended to predict the thermomechanical behavior of solder under constant low strain rate (10−51/s), from 0 to 1% max. strain fatigue loading with in-phase thermal cycling between 298K and 373K.
A novel approach in the theory to account for the microstructural changes enhanced by the stressassisted grain boundary diffusion mechanism during thermal cycling was proposed by using a partial relaxation function h1(T) of back stress (i.e. ρ0 in ρ(Z)).The theoretical results were in very well agreement with experimental data. These results and the out-phase results from the present theory were new and might be used as references to compare with results derived from other theories.
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