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Developing the ability to regulate one's emotions in accordance with
contextual demands (i.e., emotion regulation) is a central developmental task of
early childhood. These processes are supported by the engagement of the
autonomic nervous system (ANS), a physiological hub of a vast network tasked
with dynamically integrating real-time experiential inputs with internal
motivational and goal states. To date, much of what is known about the ANS and
emotion regulation has been based on measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia, a
cardiac indicator of parasympathetic activity. In the present study, we draw
from dynamical systems models to introduce two nonlinear indices of cardiac
complexity (fractality and sample entropy) as potential indicators of these
broader ANS dynamics. Using data from a stratified sample of preschoolers living
in high- (i.e., emergency homeless shelter) and low-risk contexts
(N = 115), we show that, in conjunction with
respiratory sinus arrhythmia, these nonlinear indices may help to clarify
important differences in the behavioral manifestations of emotion regulation. In
particular, our results suggest that cardiac complexity may be especially useful
for discerning active, effortful emotion regulation from less effortful
regulation and dysregulation.
Gut symbionts can augment resistance to pathogens by stimulating host-immune responses, competing for space and nutrients, or producing antimicrobial metabolites. Gut microbiota of social bees, which pollinate many crops and wildflowers, protect hosts against diverse infections and might counteract pathogen-related bee declines. Bumble bee gut microbiota, and specifically abundance of Lactobacillus ‘Firm-5’ bacteria, can enhance resistance to the trypanosomatid parasite Crithidia bombi. However, the mechanism underlying this effect remains unknown. We hypothesized that the Firm-5 bacterium Lactobacillus bombicola, which produces lactic acid, inhibits C. bombi via pH-mediated effects. Consistent with our hypothesis, L. bombicola spent medium inhibited C. bombi growth via reduction in pH that was both necessary and sufficient for inhibition. Inhibition of all parasite strains occurred within the pH range documented in honey bees, though sensitivity to acidity varied among strains. Spent medium was slightly more potent than HCl, d- and l-lactic acids for a given pH, suggesting that other metabolites also contribute to inhibition. Results implicate symbiont-mediated reduction in gut pH as a key determinant of trypanosomatid infection in bees. Future investigation into in vivo effects of gut microbiota on pH and infection intensity would test the relevance of these findings for bees threatened by trypanosomatids.
Identifying factors that influence the functional outcome is an important goal in schizophrenia research. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a unique genetic model with high risk (20–25%) for schizophrenia. This study aimed to identify potentially targetable domains of neurocognitive functioning associated with functional outcome in adults with 22q11DS.
We used comprehensive neurocognitive test data available for 99 adults with 22q11DS (n = 43 with schizophrenia) and principal component analysis to derive four domains of neurocognition (Verbal Memory, Visual and Logical Memory, Motor Performance, and Executive Performance). We then investigated the association of these neurocognitive domains with adaptive functioning using Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales data and a linear regression model that accounted for the effects of schizophrenia status and overall intellectual level.
The regression model explained 46.8% of the variance in functional outcome (p < 0.0001). Executive Performance was significantly associated with functional outcome (p = 0.048). Age and schizophrenia were also significant factors. The effects of Executive Performance on functioning did not significantly differ between those with and without psychotic illness.
The findings provide the impetus for further studies to examine the potential of directed (early) interventions targeting Executive Performance to improve long-term adaptive functional outcome in individuals with, or at high risk for, schizophrenia. Moreover, the neurocognitive test profiles may benefit caregivers and clinicians by providing insight into the relative strengths and weaknesses of individuals with 22q11DS, with and without psychotic illness.
One of the most conspicuous phenomena in the Arctic Is the fracture of sea ice. It is scarcely possible to travel far without seeing a variety of fracture forms, produced both by natural processes and by human activity.
At strain-rates below about 10−4 s−1, deformation is dominated by creep, but at higher strain-rates fracture is much more important. One of the reasons for this is the very low fracture toughness of ice. The movements of ice in contact with offshore structures often induce strain-rates well beyond the level at which fracture begins, and so offshore structures will often operate in the fracture regime, and it is fracture processes which will determine the design loads. We consider the different modes of repeated fracture that will occur, and classify them into distinct mechanisms of crushing, spalling, and radial and circumferential cracking. Experimental and field observations are plotted on a deformation mode map. A theoretical treatment of radial cracking confirms that very low loads can propagate cracks to long distances; these loads are small by comparison with those calculated from theoretical models that treat ice as a plastically-deforming continuum.
The Caltech imaging γ-ray telescope was launched by balloon from Alice Springs, NT, Australia and performed observations of the galactic center during the period 12.62 to 13.00 April 1988 UT. The first coded-aperture images of the galactic center region at energies above 30 keV show a single strong γ-ray source which is located 0.7±0.1° from the galactic nucleus and is tentatively identified as 1E1740.7-2942. If the source is at the distance of the galactic center, it is one of the most luminous objects in the galaxy at energies from 35 to 200 keV.
The Queen's University of Belfast, Northern Ireland and University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand radiocarbon laboratories have undertaken a series of high-precision measurements on decadal samples of dendrochronologically dated oak (Quercus patrea) and cedar (Libocedrus bidwillii) from Great Britain and New Zealand, respectively. The results show a real atmospheric offset of 3.4 ± 0.6% (27.2 ± 4.7 14C yr) between the two locations for the interval ad 1725 to ad 1885, with the Southern Hemisphere being depleted in l4C. This result is less than the value currently used to correct Southern Hemisphere calibrations, possibly indicating a gradient in Δ14C within the Southern Hemisphere.
Heritability estimates from twin studies of the multi-faceted phenotype of nicotine dependence (ND) range from moderate to high (31–60%), but vary substantially based on the specific ND-related construct examined. The current study estimated the aggregate role of common genetic variants on key ND constructs.
Genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) was used to decompose phenotypic variance across multiple ND indices using 796 125 polymorphisms from 2346 unrelated ‘lifetime ever smokers’ of European ancestry. Measures included DSM-IV ND and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) summary measures and constituent constructs (e.g. withdrawal severity, tolerance, heaviness of smoking and time spent smoking). Exploratory and confirmatory factor models were used to describe the covariance structure across ND measures; resulting factor(s) were the subject(s) of GREML analyses.
Factor models indicated highly correlated DSM-IV and FTND factors for ND (0.545, 95% confidence interval 0.50–0.60) that could be represented as a higher-order factor (NIC DEP). Additive genetic influence on NIC DEP was 33% (s.e. = 0.14, p = 0.009). Post-hoc analyses indicated moderate genetic effects on the DSM-IV (34%, s.e. = 0.14, p = 0.008) and FTND (26%, s.e. = 0.14, p = 0.032) factors, both of which were influenced by the same genetic effects (rG-SNP = 1.00, s.e. = 0.09, p < 0.00001).
Overall, common single nucleotide polymorphisms accounted for a large proportion of the genetic influences on ND-related phenotypes that have been observed in twin studies. Genetic contributions across distinct ND scales were largely influenced by shared genetic factors.
The Southern Hemisphere SHCal04 radiocarbon calibration curve has been updated with the addition of new data sets extending measurements to 2145 cal BP and including the ANSTO Younger Dryas Huon pine data set. Outside the range of measured data, the curve is based upon the ern Hemisphere data sets as presented in IntCal13, with an interhemispheric offset averaging 43 ± 23 yr modeled by an autoregressive process to represent the short-term correlations in the offset.
There are now significant data to support the hypothesis that early life nutrition in the fetus, infant and young child can have profound effects on long-term health. This review considers some of this evidence with specific reference to the current burden of disease in Australia and New Zealand. As the findings of further research become available, recommendations on optimizing early life nutrition should be formulated and made widely available as part of the preventative health policy agenda in both Australia and New Zealand.
We describe the current, 9-spacecraft Interplanetary Network (IPN). The IPN detects about
325 gamma-ray bursts per year, of which about 100 are not localized by any other missions.
We give some examples of how the data, which are public, can be utilized.
Human campylobacteriosis exhibits a distinctive seasonality in temperate regions. This paper aims to identify the origins of this seasonality. Clinical isolates [typed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)] and epidemiological data were collected from Scotland. Young rural children were found to have an increased burden of disease in the late spring due to strains of non-chicken origin (e.g. ruminant and wild bird strains from environmental sources). In contrast the adult population had an extended summer peak associated with chicken strains. Travel abroad and UK mainland travel were associated with up to 17% and 18% of cases, respectively. International strains were associated with chicken, had a higher diversity than indigenous strains and a different spectrum of MLST types representative of these countries. Integrating empirical epidemiology and molecular subtyping can successfully elucidate the seasonal components of human campylobacteriosis. The findings will enable public health officials to focus strategies to reduce the disease burden.
Introduction of pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPV23) and conjugate vaccine (PCV7) programmes were expected to change the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumonia in the UK. We describe the epidemiology of IPD and hospitalization with pneumonia using high-quality surveillance data over an 8-year period, 2002–2009. Although PPV23 uptake increased from 49% to 70% and PCV7 uptake reached 98% by 2009, the overall incidence of IPD increased from 11·8/100 000 to 16·4/100 000 (P=0·13), and the incidence of hospitalization with pneumonia increased from 143/100 000 to 207/100 000 (P<0·001). Although a reduction in the proportion of IPD caused by PCV7 serotypes was observed, concurrent increases in PPV23 and non-vaccine serotype IPD contributed to an increased IPD burden overall. Marked inequalities in the geographical distribution of disease were observed. Existing vaccination programmes have, so far, not been sufficient to address an increasing burden of pneumococcal disease in our locality.
The electrical properties associated with diamond charged particle- and photo-detectors were studied using charged particle-induced conductivity (CPIC) and photo-induced conductivity (PIC). The collection distance d, the product of the excess carrier mobility μ excess carrier lifetime T and electric field E, was used to characterize the diamonds. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, SEM and TEM were performed on CVD diamond detectors to investigate the limitations of the electrical properties. Correlations were found between the electrical properties and the material characterizations.
Two complementary techniques are used to study the electrical transport properties related to the use of diamonds as materials for ionizing radiation detectors. Transient photoconductivity using soft x-rays is used to probe the first few microns of the material, while ionizing particle-excited conductivity is used to probe the entire bulk of the material (1 millimeter). Both techniques measure the mean drift distance of free carriers, or the collection distance d. In addition, transient photoconductivity is able to extract the lifetimes and mobilities of the excited carriers. The collection distance measured by the two methods are in agreement, suggesting the material is homogeneous. At an applied field of 10 kV/cm, d is 25 to 30 microns, and, up to a field of 25 kV/cm, d has not saturated. The lifetime varies between 100 and 600 ps, and the mobility varies between 1000 and 4000 cm2/V-s, the range due to natural variations from sample to sample. The primary defects limiting the lifetime are believed to be nitrogen impurities and dislocations.
The electrical properties associated with carrier mobility, μ, and lifetime, τ, have been investigated for the chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond films using charged particle-induced conductivity and time resolved transient photo-induced conductivity. The collection distance, d, the average distance which electron and hole depart when driven by an applied electric field E, was measured by both methods. The collection distance is related to the carrier mobility and lifetime by d = μEτ Our measurements show that the collection distance increases linearly with sample thickness for CVD diamond films. The collection distance at the growth side of the CVD diamond film is comparable to that of single crystal natural type IIa diamond; at the substrate side of the film, the collection distance is near zero. No saturation of the collection distance is observed for film thickness up to 500 microns.
Diamond is suitable for use as an ionizing particle detector for high rate, high radiation, and/or chemically harsh environments. A sampling calorimeter, a detector measuring the total energy of an incident particle, consisting of 20 alternating layers of diamond and tungsten has been constructed and tested. The diamond for the detector layers was grown by chemical vapor deposition with an averaged thickness of 500 μm. The active area of each layer was 3×3 cm2 with ohmic contacts on opposite faces forming a metal-insulator-metal structure. The calorimeter was tested with electrons of energies up to 5.0 GeV. The response of the diamond/tungsten calorimeter was found to be linear as a function of incident energy. A direct comparison of diamond/tungsten and silicon/tungsten calorimeters was made.